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World War II. America Returns to Isolationism & Rise of Fascists/Dictatorships. 1921 – Washington Naval Conference. Hosted by Pres. Harding Leading nations agreed to limit the size of their navies. 1928 - Kellog -Briand Pact. Signed by 62 nations Renounced use of war. 1930’s.

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1921 washington naval conference
1921 – Washington Naval Conference
  • Hosted by Pres. Harding
  • Leading nations agreed to limit the size of their navies
1928 kellog briand pact
1928 - Kellog-Briand Pact
  • Signed by 62 nations
  • Renounced use of war
1930 s
1930’s
  • “Good Neighbor Policy”
    • Followed by Hoover and FDR
    • We would not interfere in Latin American affairs
  • Economic Depression
    • Hurts European economies WORSE than U.S. (Why?)
italy
Italy
  • 1922 - The king of Italy let Benito Mussolini lead the government.
  • Mussolini used thugs to threaten his political opponents.
  • He abolished democracy.
  • 1935 – Italy invaded Ethiopia.
germany
Germany
  • Nazism = German fascism.
  • 1933 – Adolf Hitler became Germany’s leader.
  • 1936 – Hitler formed an alliance with Mussolini and Japan.
spain
Spain
  • 1936 – General Francisco Franco led a revolution.
  • Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin sent aid.
  • 1939 – Franco became the Fascist dictator.
russia
Russia
  • 1917 – Russian Revolution
    • Russia became Communist = Soviet Union
  • 1920s – Stalin became Totalitarian ruler
1935 37 neutrality acts
1935-37 – Neutrality Acts
  • Prohibited Americans from selling arms to countries at war
  • Could only sell non-military items on a “cash-and-carry” basis
1937 fdr s quarantine speech
1937 – FDR’s Quarantine Speech
  • Japan invaded China (full-scale invasion).
  • FDR warned Americans we had to act together to isolate aggressive nations
allies
Allies
  • Great Britain – Neville Chamberlain, Winston Churchill
  • France – Charles de Gaulle
  • USSR – Joseph Stalin
  • U.S. – Franklin Roosevelt, Harry Truman
slide16
Axis
  • Germany – Adolf Hitler
  • Italy – Benito Mussolini
  • Japan – Emperor Hirohito and Prime Minister Hideki Tojo
1938 munich conference
1938 – Munich Conference
  • British & French leaders agreed to give Hitler Sudetenland (part of Czech) = APPEASEMENT
may 1939 pact of steel
May 1939 – Pact of Steel
  • Alliance formed by Hitler and Mussolini
august 1939 nonaggression pact
August, 1939 – Nonaggression Pact
  • Signed by Hitler and Stalin
september 1939 wwii started
September, 1939 – WWII Started
  • Germany invaded Poland.
    • Britain and France declare war.
    • Germany defeated Poland in a 4 week blitzkrieg (lightning war)
      • Used the Luftwaffe and panzers
april 1940
April 1940
  • Germany invaded Denmark and Norway
may 1940
May 1940
  • Germany defeated Holland, Luxembourg, and Belgium (in two weeks).
  • Allies were pushed to the coast of Dunkirk (France)
june 1940
June 1940
  • French surrendered when Germany advanced past the Maginot Line (France’s main defense)
summer 1940 battle of britain
Summer 1940 – Battle of Britain
  • Germany bombed British cities.
  • The Royal Air Force (RAF) fought off the German Luftwaffe for a year.
spring 1941
Spring 1941
  • Hitler sent Gen. Rommel (The “Desert Fox”) to aid Mussolini in North Africa.
january 1941 fdr s 4 freedoms
January 1941 – FDR’s 4 Freedoms
  • Freedom of Speech
  • Freedom of Religion
  • Freedom from want
  • Freedom from fear
march 1941
March 1941
  • Lend-Lease Act signed with U.S.
april 1941
April 1941
  • Germany took over Yugoslavia and Greece
june 1941 operation barbarossa
June 1941 – Operation Barbarossa
  • Hitler invaded the USSR
  • German advances were stopped in December when temperatures fell to -40 degrees F
august 1941 atlantic charter
August 1941 – Atlantic Charter
  • FDR & Churchill met
  • Laid foundation for the U.N.
dec 7 1941 pearl harbor
Dec. 7, 1941 - Pearl Harbor
  • Japan attacked the U.S. naval base in Hawaii
  • Japan also attacked Guam, Wake Isl., and Philippines.
march 1942 philippines
March 1942 -Philippines
  • FDR ordered MacArthur to leave the Philippines
  • He vowed, “I shall return.”
april1942 bataan death march
April1942 –Bataan Death March
  • Forced march of 70,000 U.S. & Filipino POWs
  • Over 7,000 died on the march up to the Bataan Peninsula (near Manila)
may 1942 battle of the coral sea
May 1942 - Battle of the Coral Sea
  • Fought entirely in the air
  • Allies saved Australia
june 1942 battle of midway
June 1942 - Battle of Midway
  • Tide of war turned against Japan.
  • Adm. Nimitz led Allies
  • Japan lost many of their best pilots.
aug 1942 guadalcanal
Aug. 1942 - Guadalcanal
  • Gen. Douglas MacArthur ordered the U.S. to attack the island where the Japanese were building an airbase.
oct nov 1942 el alamein egypt
Oct-Nov 1942 – El Alamein, Egypt
  • Germans tried to take the Suez Canal.
  • First major British victory against Germany.
jan 1943 casablanca conference
Jan. 1943 – Casablanca Conference
  • Churchill and Roosevelt agreed they would accept only an unconditional surrender.
february 1943
February 1943
  • Germany surrendered at Stalingrad (USSR)
may 1943
May 1943
  • Germans were forced out of Africa by British Gen. Montgomery and American Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower.
august 1943
August 1943
  • Allies captured Sicily and drove Mussolini from power.
june 1944
June 1944
  • D-Day
  • Allies invaded the coast of Normandy.
  • Largest amphibious invasion in World history.
august 1944
August 1944
  • Gen. Patton used a blitzkrieg to break through German lines, then swept across northern France.
oct 1944 leyte gulf
Oct. 1944 - Leyte Gulf
  • Fought in the Philippines.
  • Largest naval battle in world history.
  • U.S. crushed the Japanese Navy.
nov 1944 june 1945 iwo jima okinawa
Nov. 1944 – June 1945 –Iwo Jima & Okinawa
  • Last obstacles to invading mainland Japan.
  • “Uncommon valor was a common virtue.”
dec 1944
Dec. 1944
  • Battle of the Bulge
  • Gen. Patton and Gen. Omar N. Bradley led an offensive attack on the German border and within weeks pushed back the Germans.

Bradley, Eisenhower, and Patton

feb 1945 yalta conference
Feb. 1945 – Yalta Conference
  • Churchill, Stalin, Roosevelt met to discuss the future of Europe.
feb march 1945
Feb. & March 1945
  • USAF firebombed Dresden and Tokyo (Japan)
march 1945
March 1945
  • Gen. Bradley led troops toward Berlin from the west
april 1945
April 1945
  • Soviet troops pushed into Berlin and took over the city.
  • April 30 – Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker in Berlin.
may 1945
May 1945
  • V-E Day celebrated by the Allies.
  • Japan still had to be defeated before the war could end.
aug 1945
Aug., 1945
  • U.S. President Truman chose to drop an atomic bomb on Japan to prevent more casualties in an invasion.
  • Aug. 6th– 1st A-bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
  • Aug. 9th – 2nd A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
  • Aug. 14th – Japanese government surrendered.
  • Aug. 15th – V-J Day celebrated by Allies.
slide65

Japan had planned to attack the Panama Canal since it was a trade center for the Allies – the war ended before the attack.

yalta conference
Yalta Conference
  • Germany would be divided into 4 zones controlled by US, USSR, UK, France.
  • Democracy would be established throughout Europe.
  • But, Stalin did NOT allow elections in Eastern Europe.
the iron curtain
The Iron Curtain
  • Communist/Soviet satellite nations – Poland, Czechoslovakia, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania
  • Germany was divided into 2 sections – East Germany was communist
  • Churchill said “…an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.”
containment
Containment
  • Policy to prevent spread of communism
  • Truman Doctrine (1947) – US aid to Turkey and Greece to prevent communism
  • Marshall Plan (1947) – aid to Western Europe for economic recovery and to prevent communism
  • Berlin Airlift (1948) – Soviets closed off Berlin to the West; Allies drop food and medicine and the blockade is removed