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Reconstruction. Reconstruction. Introduction Background and Definition Presidential (1863-67) Lincoln Radicals and Others Southern Resistance Impeachment Radical/Congressional Reconstruction (1868-77) Reconstruction Act Amendments 13, 14, 15 1876 Election Conclusion. Themes.

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Reconstruction


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    1. Reconstruction

    2. Reconstruction • Introduction • Background and Definition • Presidential (1863-67) • Lincoln • Radicals and Others • Southern Resistance • Impeachment • Radical/Congressional Reconstruction (1868-77) • Reconstruction Act • Amendments 13, 14, 15 • 1876 Election • Conclusion

    3. Themes • Profiles different leaders • Goals and accomplishments of different leaders • The end of Reconstruction • Was it a success or failure?

    4. Reconstruction • Introduction • Background and Definition • Presidential (1863-67) • Lincoln • Radicals and Others • Southern Resistance • Impeachment • Radical/Congressional Reconstruction (1868-77) • Reconstruction Act • Amendments 13, 14, 15 • 1876 Election • Conclusion

    5. Bellwork With the Southern economy destroyed, and 3 million former slaves now searching for work and homes, what do you think the U.S. government should do to aid in the reconstruction of the south?

    6. Results of the Civil War • Over 600,000 dead • The South’s economy was destroyed • Unresolved status for the 3.5 million former slaves

    7. Reconstruction • The process of putting the nation back together following the Civil War

    8. Reconstruction • Lincoln's plan for reconstruction was stated in the document titled The Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction • Read the document with your team and answers the following questions.

    9. December 8, 1863 Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction questions: • Read the document with your team and answers the following questions. • Who is can take the oath to receive a pardon according to the proclamation? • Who is not allowed to take the oath to receive a pardoned? What is the purpose of denying many Southerners a pardon? • How does President Lincoln insure that the newly constructed loyal states will abolish slavery? • Other than their freedom, what does the President provide for the freed slaves? What else could he or should he provide in your opinion? • Do you think that a state should be considered loyal when 10% of its population takes the loyalty oath? Why or why not? • Who has the ultimate responsibility for seating the representatives of the newly reconstructed states in Congress? Could they be elected in their states but refused seats in Congress? Why or why not? • In what ways do you feel this is a good working plan for Reconstruction? In what ways do you think it needs revision?

    10. Reconstruction • Introduction • Background and Definition • Presidential (1863-67) • Lincoln • Radicals and Others • Southern Resistance • Impeachment • Radical/Congressional Reconstruction (1868-77) • Reconstruction Act • Amendments 13, 14, 15 • 1876 Election • Conclusion

    11. Lincoln’s Plan (1863) • December 8, 1863 Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction • 10% of voters in Confederate states must sign loyalty oath • Accept emancipation • High ranking Confederates officials could not take oath for pardon • Once these conditions were met, a state could return to the Union. • Senate and House would allow for membership in Congress

    12. Reconstruction • Introduction • Background and Definition • Presidential (1863-67) • Lincoln • Radicals and Others • Southern Resistance • Impeachment • Radical/Congressional Reconstruction (1868-77) • Reconstruction Act • Amendments 13, 14, 15 • 1876 Election • Conclusion

    13. Three Important Leaders Following Lincoln’s Death • Andrew Johnson • Thaddeus Stevens • Charles Sumner Radical Republicans

    14. Andrew Johnson • Former Senator from Tennessee; Lincoln's Vice President during 2nd term • Political Party: Democrat • Only southern senator to stay loyal to the Union

    15. Andrew Johnson • Reconstruction Plan • Amnesty for those who took oath • High Ranking Confederate officials could apply for pardon • Issued 13,000 pardons • Unconcerned with rights of former slaves

    16. “Andrew Johnson’s Reconstruction and How it Works…” by Thomas Nast Sep. 1, 1866

    17. Check Up! • Following Lincoln’s assassination the 1863 Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction was simply a guideline for moving forward. Congress and the president had varied points of view about how Reconstruction should proceed. • President Johnson: Wished to move forward swiftly and reunify the country with little punishment for the south and follow Lincoln’s plan. • Radical Republicans (Congressional Republicans): Called for more harsh punishment for Confederate leaders, and greater protections for the civil liberties of African Americans. • Given these two opposing viewpoints, make changes to the 1863 Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction to better reflect your groups opinion of how Reconstruction should proceed. Examine the chart on page 357 for further details on Reconstruction plans. • Plans should be in bullet format and contain between 5-10 points.

    18. Reconstruction • Introduction • Background and Definition • Presidential (1863-67) • Lincoln • Radicals and Others • Southern Resistance • Impeachment • Radical/Congressional Reconstruction (1868-77) • Reconstruction Act • Amendments 13, 14, 15 • 1876 Election • Conclusion

    19. Southern Resistance to Reconstruction • Black Codes emerged (Johnson did nothing) • Laws establishing conditions very similar to slavery for African Am. • No Civil or Pol. rights • Af. Am. men required to sign 1 year contracts • Restriction on racial intermarriage and jury service

    20. Radical Republicans • Goal of Radical Republicans • Punish the South for causing the Civil War • Citizenship/Political rights for former slaves • Economic opportunity for former slavers

    21. Freedman’s Bureau • Oversaw relief activities designed to aid former slaves • Established schools for children • Helped to re-unite families separated under slavery • Negotiated jobs on plantation • Provided food to the needy

    22. Freedman’s Bureau “I never before saw children so eager to learn... The older ones, during the summer, work in the fields from early morning until eleven or twelve o’clock, and then come to school, after their hard toil in the hot sun, as bright and as anxious to learn as ever. . . . Many of the grown people are desirous of learning to read. It is wonderful how a people who have been so long crushed to the earth . . . can have so great a desire for knowledge, and such a capacity for attaining it.” • Charlotte Forten, African American teacher in the South Carolina Sea Islands, March 1864.

    23. Freedman’s Bureau • Oversaw relief activities designed to aid former slaves • Established schools for children • Helped to re-unite families separated under slavery • Negotiated jobs on plantation • Provided food to the needy • Johnson vetoed renewal of program in 1866.

    24. Reconstruction • Introduction • Background and Definition • Presidential (1863-67) • Lincoln • Radicals and Others • Southern Resistance • Impeachment • Radical/Congressional Reconstruction (1868-77) • Reconstruction Act • Amendments 13, 14, 15 • 1876 Election • Conclusion

    25. Impeachment • Impeachment: To bring official charges against the president (majority vote in House of Representatives) • Trial/Removal: The individual stands trial (Senate acts as jury; 2/3 majority vote it needed for removal)

    26. Johnson fired the Secretary of War which violated a federal law • The House of Representatives Impeached Johnson • Impeachment failed in the Senate

    27. Check Up! • Should impeachment be used as a political tool during times of disagreement between the President and the Congress?

    28. Reconstruction • Introduction • Background and Definition • Presidential (1863-67) • Lincoln • Radicals and Others • Southern Resistance • Impeachment • Radical/Congressional Reconstruction (1868-77) • Reconstruction Act • Amendments 13, 14, 15 • 1876 Election • Conclusion

    29. Radical/Congressional Reconstruction (1866-77) • Civil Rights Act 1866 • Est. Birth Right Citizenship • Equal rights before the law

    30. Radical/Congressional Reconstitution (1868-77) • Civil Rights Act 1866 • Est. Birth Right Citizenship • Equal rights before the law • Reconstruction Acts (1867-68) • Militarily occupied of former Confederate St. • draft a new state constitution, approved by Congress. • Grant voting rights to black men

    31. Reconstruction • Introduction • Background and Definition • Presidential (1863-67) • Lincoln • Radicals and Others • Southern Resistance • Impeachment • Radical/Congressional Reconstruction (1868-77) • Reconstruction Act • Amendments 13, 14, 15 • 1876 Election • Conclusion

    32. 13th Amendment (1865) • Prohibited Slavery

    33. 14th Amendment (1868) …(T)he laws…shall give to all men equal protection; that each and every man may appeal to the law for his equal rights without regard to the color of his skin; and we believe this can only be done by extending to us the elective franchise... We claim the right of suffrage . . . • Source: Proceedings of the Convention of the Colored People of Virginia, August 1865.

    34. 14th Amendment (1868) “If we are called on to do military duty against the rebel armies in the field, why should we be denied the privilege of voting against rebel citizens at the ballot-box?...” • Petition from American citizens of African descent to the Union convention of Tennessee assembled in the capitol at Nashville, January 9, 1865.

    35. 14th Amendment (1868) • All persons born in the U.S. are citizens of the U.S. • All citizens are guaranteed equal treatment under the law • Punished states that denied adult males the right to vote

    36. 14th Amendment (1868)

    37. 15th Amendment • Guaranteed the right of all Af. Am. Men to vote • 2000 + Af. Am. Men Serve in gov. • 14 H.R. and 2 Sen.

    38. Reconstruction • Introduction • Background and Definition • Presidential (1863-67) • Lincoln • Radicals and Others • Southern Resistance • Impeachment • Radical/Congressional Reconstruction (1868-77) • Reconstruction Act • Amendments 13, 14, 15 • 1876 Election • Conclusion

    39. 1876 Election • Samuel Tilden (D): A political reformer from N.Y. • Rutherford B. Hayes (R): former Ohio Governor • Problem: • Contested Votes: FL, LA, SC • A commission was established to determine the winner

    40. Compromise of 1877 • Hayes became President • Military occupation of the South ended

    41. Reconstruction • Introduction • Background and Definition • Presidential (1863-67) • Lincoln • Radicals and Others • Southern Resistance • Impeachment • Radical/Congressional Reconstruction (1868-77) • Reconstruction Act • Amendments 13, 14, 15 • 1876 Election • Reconstruction Falters • Conclusion

    42. Bellwork • What goals would have to be meet for you to consider Reconstruction to be a success?

    43. Limits to Reconstruction • The Civil War Amendments did not redistribute land. • No  "40 acres and a mule" • South white farmers owned most farm land

    44. Limits to Reconstruction • The Civil War Amendments did not redistribute land. • No  "40 acres and a mule" • South white farmers owned most farm land • Most Af. Am. lived as sharecroppers and faced little economic opportunity.

    45. Sharecroppers Greene County Georgia 1941

    46. Limits to Reconstruction • The Civil War Amendments did not redistribute land. • No  "40 acres and a mule" • South white farmers owned most farm land • Most Af. Am. lived as sharecroppers and faced little economic opportunity. • End of funding to most Af. Am. Schools

    47. Limits to Reconstruction • The Civil War Amendments did not redistribute land. • No  "40 acres and a mule" • South white farmers owned most farm land • Most Af. Am. lived as sharecroppers and faced little economic opportunity. • End of funding to most Af. Am. Schools • Terrorism (Ku Klux Klan/ White League) • 1890-1960 4,000 lynchings