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  1. Law Enforcement and Government Surveillance November 15, 2007

  2. Research and Communication Skills Organizing a research paper • Decide up front what the point of your paper is and stay focused as you write • Once you have decided on the main point, pick a title • Start with an outline • Use multiple levels of headings (usually 2 or 3) • Don’t ramble!

  3. Research and Communication Skills Typical paper organization • Abstract • Short summary of paper • Introduction • Motivation (why this work is interesting/important, not your personal motivation) • Background and related work • Sometimes part of introduction, sometimes two sections • Methods • What you did • In a systems paper you may have system design and evaluation sections instead • Results • What you found out • Discussion • Sometimes called Conclusion • May include conclusions, future work, discussion of implications,etc. • References • Appendix • Stuff not essential to understanding the paper, but useful, especially to those trying to reproduce your results - data tables, proofs, survey forms, etc.

  4. Research and Communication Skills Road map • Papers longer than a few pages should have a “road map” so readers know where you are going • Road map usually comes at the end of the introduction • Tell them what you are going to say, then say it, (and then tell them what you said) • Examples • In the next section I introduce X and discuss related work. In Section 3 I describe my research methodology. In Section 4 I present results. In Section 5 I present conclusions and possible directions for future work. • Waldman et al, 2001: “This article presents an architecture for robust Web publishing systems. We describe nine design goals for such systems, review several existing systems, and take an in-depth look at Publius, a system that meets these design goals.”

  5. Research and Communication Skills Use topic sentences • (Almost) every paragraph should have a topic sentence • Usually the first sentence • Sometimes the last sentence • Topic sentence gives the main point of the paragraph • First paragraph of each section and subsection should give the main point of that section • Examples from Waldman et al, 2001 • In this section we attempt to abstract the particular implementation details and describe the underlying components and architecture of a censorship-resistant system. • Anonymous publications have been used to help bring about change throughout history.

  6. Research and Communication Skills Avoid unsubstantiated claims • Provide evidence for every claim you make • Related work • Results of your own experiments • Conclusions should not come as a surprise • Analysis of related work, experimental results, etc. should support your conclusions • Conclusions should summarize, highlight, show relationships, raise questions for future work • Don’t introduce new ideas in discussion or conclusion section (other than ideas for related work) • Don’t reach conclusions not supported by the rest of your paper

  7. Research and Communication Skills Creating a research poster • Any word processor, drawing, or page design software will work • PowerPoint is well-suited for making posters • Design poster as single panel or modular units • Single panel posters • Have a professional look (if well designed) • Should be printed on large format printers • Modular units • Easier to design and transport • Print on letter paper (optionally, mounted on construction paper)

  8. Research and Communication Skills Research poster content • Don’t try to present your whole paper • Convey the big picture • Don’t expect people to spend more than 3-5 minutes reading your poster • 500 words, maximum • Introduce problem, your approach, and results • Provide necessary background or glossary • A picture is worth 1000 words • Graphs, diagrams, etc. • Use bullets and sentence fragments, similar to making slides • Don’t forget to include title and author

  9. Research and Communication Skills Research poster design • Use a modular design • Each section of your poster can go in a box • Use a large, easy-to-read font • Most text should be at least 20 point font • No text less than 14 point font • Headings should be larger and in bold • Use color consistently • Arrange elements for a sensible visual flow

  10. Research and Communication Skills Presenting your research poster • Be prepared to give a 1-minute overview of your poster and answer questions • Let people read your poster without interrupting them • Consider bringing a laptop if you have software to demo or a video to show • Consider making handouts available with abstract, web URL for obtaining your paper, and your contact information

  11. December 4 Poster Fair • During class, location TBA • 32x40 inch foam core boards, 9x12 inch construction paper, glue sticks, and thumb tacks will be made available • You can get them from me in advance if you want • Present your preliminary project results and get feedback you can use as you finish your paper

  12. Donald Kerr’s comments • CNN Commentary: •

  13. US Crypto Regulation Slides courtesy of Hal Abelson

  14. There is a very real and critical danger that unrestrained public discussion of cryptologic matters will seriously damage the ability of this government to conduct signals intelligence and the ability of this government to carry out its mission of protecting national security information from hostile exploitation. -- Admiral Bobby Ray Inman (Director of the NSA, 1979)

  15. Unless the issue of encryption is resolved soon, criminal conversations over the telephone and other communications devices will become indecipherable by law enforcement. This, as much as any issue, jeopardizes the public safety and national security of this country. Drug cartels, terrorists, and kidnappers will use telephones and other communications media with impunity knowing that their conversations are immune from our most valued investigative technique. - FBI Director Louis Freeh, Congressional testimony March 30, 1995

  16. CALEA, October 1994 … a telecommunications carrier … shall ensure that its equipment, facilities, or services … are capable of … expeditiously isolating and enabling the government, pursuant to a court order or other lawful authorization, to intercept … all wire and electronic communications carried by the carrier within a service area to or from equipment, facilities, or services of a subscriber of such carrier concurrently with their transmission to or from the subscriber's equipment, facility, or service, or at such later time as may be acceptable to the government …

  17. Clipper • Designed by the NSA: “For telephones only” • Authorized by classified Clinton directive in April 1993 (publicly announced only that they were evaluating it). Standards released in Feb. 1994 • “Voluntary” (but government will buy only Clipper phones) • Built-in (“back door”) key that is split: each half held by a different government agency (“key escrow”) • Encryption algorithm classified: Clipper chips must be tamperproof and therefore expensive • Clipper phones do not interoperate with non-Clipper phones • “Capstone” chip for computer data and communications

  18. Crypto export controls • Pre-1995: Encryption technology classified by State Department as a munition • Illegal to export hardware, software, technical information, unless you register as an arms dealer and adhere to stringent regulations • Illegal to provide material or technical assistance to non-US personnel, including posting on the internet to be available outside the US • 1995: Bernstein v. US Dept. of State, et. al., suit filed challenging the Constitutionality of export regulations • 1996: Jurisdiction for crypto exports transferred to Commerce Department, but restrictions remain. • 1996-2001: Crypto regulations modified and relaxed, but still exist (e.g., can’t export to the CIILNKSS countries) • 2003: Bernstein case dismissed, October 16, 2003

  19. Industry claims and issues (1995) • Customers want security for electronic commerce, for protecting remote access, for confidentiality of business information. • Export restrictions are a pain in the butt. • There is plausible commercial demand for “exceptional access” to stored encrypted data (e.g., is someone loses a key); but little demand for access to encrypted communications, and no commercial demand for surreptitious access.

  20. Law enforcement claims and issues (1995) • Wiretapping is a critical law-enforcement tool. • Wiretaps are conducted on specific, identified targets under lawful authority. • For wiretapping, access to escrowed keys must occur without knowledge of the keyholders. • Many criminals are often sloppy and/or stupid: They won’t use encryption unless it becomes ubiquitous. Some criminals are far from sloppy or stupid: They will use encryption if it is available. • Evidence obtained from decryption must hold up in court. • There is a need for international cooperation in law enforcement.

  21. National security establishment claims and issues (1995) • We can’t tell you, but they are really serious. • NSA “is rumored to be” carrying out blanket interceptions of communications on a massive scale, using computers to filter out the interesting traffic.

  22. Civil libertarian claims and issues (1995) • As computer communication technology becomes more pervasive, allowing government access to communications becomes much more than traditional wiretapping of phone conversations. • How do we guard against abuse of the system? • If we make wiretapping easy, then what are the checks on its increasing use? • There are other tools (bugging, data mining, DNA matching) that can assist law enforcement. People have less privacy than previously, even without wiretapping.

  23. NIST meetings with industry, Fall 95 • Allow export of hardware and software with up to 56-bit algorithms, provided the keys are escrowed with government approved “escrow agents” • But • no interoperability between escrowed and non-escrowed systems • escrow cannot be disabled • escrow agents must be certified by US government or by foreign governments with whom US has formal agreements

  24. Interagency working group draft, May 96 • Industry and government must partner in the development of a public key-based key management infrastructure and attendant products that will assure participants can transmit and receive information electronically with confidence in the information's integrity, authenticity, and origin and which will assure timely lawful government access. • Escrow is the price of certification (CA might be also function as an EA)

  25. Courting industry, Fall 96 - ... • Shift jurisdiction of crypto exports from State to Commerce • Allow export of any strength, so long as it has key escrow (now known as “key recovery” - KR) • Immediate approval of export for 56-bit DES, provided company files a plan for installing KR in new 56-products within two years • Increased granting of export licenses for restricted applications (e..g, financial transactions)

  26. Legislation, 1997 • Bills introduced all over the map, ranging from elimination of export controls to bills that would mandate key recovery for domestic use.

  27. Hal Abelson • Ross Anderson • Steven M. Bellovin • Josh Benaloh • Matt Blaze • Whitfield Diffie • John Gilmore • Peter G. Neumann • Ronald L. Rivest • Jeffrey I. Schiller • Bruce Schneier 

  28. Some technical observations • If Alice and Bob can authenticate to each other, then they can use Diffie-Hellman to establish a shared key for communications • The security requirements for CAs are very different from those for escrow agents • Implementing basic crypto is cheap, adding a key recovery infrastructure is not. • Crypto is necessary not only for electronic commerce, but to protect the information infrastructure. But key escrow may make things less secure, not more: • Repositories of escrowed keys could be irresistible targets of attack by criminals • If thousands of law enforcement personnel can quickly get access to escrowed keys, then who else can??

  29. More recently … • Jan, 2000: Commerce Department issues new export regulations on encryption, relaxing restrictions • Sept. 13, 2001: Sen. Judd Gregg (New Hampshire) calls for encryption regulations, saying encryption makers “have as much at risk as we have at risk as a nation, and they should understand that as a matter of citizenship, they have an obligation” to include decryption methods for government agents. • By Oct., Gregg had changed his mind about introducing legislation.

  30. Surveillance systems you should know about • Clipper • Echelon • CAPS II • TIA • Carnivore • CALEA • MATRIX