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Gene Regulation and Pathological Development Studies Using Mouse models. Yaowu Zheng Transgenic Research Center firstname.lastname@example.org (0431)85098583. Materials and Lecturers. Oct. 9: Introduction to Gene regulation, Zheng Oct. 16: Gene expression and development, Zheng
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Transgenic Research Center
Updated Central Dogma
Primary structure in living organisms
Double helix Structure
Neuron and lymphocyte
Two of each H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 subunits in the core
Average 200 bp
140bp in core area
Unmethylated CpG island
Methylated CpG island
Gene regulation by Methylation
Genes controlled in group by operons
27% of E. coli genes are controlled by operons
Housekeeping genes not controlled by operons
Simultaneous transcription and translation
No operons, but they still need to coordinate regulation
Genes are fragmented into exons and introns
More kinds of control elements, many levels of control
Separated transcription and translation location and control
Epigenetic regulation and Chromatin remodeling
Tissue-specific, developmental and inducible regulationComparisons
How does this happen?
What decide tissue-specificity?
What decide the developmental stages?
What decide the expression level?
Proximal elements of promoter
to regulate developing patterns
Insulator Elements (boundary elements) help to coordinate the regulation
The Fate of Proteins after translation
Val -> 100h
Met, Gly -> 30h
Pro - > 20h
Ile -> 20h
Thr -> 7.2h
Leu -> 5.5h
Ala -> 4.4h
His -> 3.5h
Trp -> 2.8h
Tyr -> 2.8h
Ser -> 1.9h
Asn -> 1.4h
Lys -> 1.3h
Cys -> 1.2h
Asp -> 1.1h
Phe -> 1.1h
Glu -> 1.0h
Arg -> 1.0h
Gln -> 0.8h
N-terminal residues in Yeast
Met, Gly, Ala, Ser, Thr, Val, Pro - > 20 hrs (stabilising)
Ile, Glu - approx. 30 min (stabilising)
Tyr, Gln - approx. 10 min (destabilisiing)
Leu, Phe, Asp, Lys - approx. 3 min (destabilising)
Arg - approx. 2 min (destabilising)
"N"-terminal residues - approximate half-life of proteins in mammalian systems
Microscopic "holes" are characteristic in prion-affected tissue sections, causing the tissue to develop a "spongy" architecture.
Viruses, bacteria infection