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Chapter Nineteen India, China, and Japan: From Medieval to Modern Times. Culture and Values Cunningham and Reich and Fichner-Rathus, 8th Ed. Pre-Medieval India. 500-=1000 c.e. in North & South India establishment of major cities Hinduism & Buddhism dominate religions

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chapter nineteen india china and japan from medieval to modern times

Chapter NineteenIndia, China, and Japan:From Medieval to Modern Times

Culture and Values

Cunningham and Reich and Fichner-Rathus, 8th Ed.

pre medieval india
Pre-Medieval India

500-=1000 c.e. in North & South India establishment of major cities

Hinduism & Buddhism dominate religions

Periods of peace & prosperity linked with religious dominance and flourishing of culture like architecture, poetry,

Hindu temples cave temples

Statues in Copper alloys or Bronze


Seated Buddha Expounding the Dharma, Late Anuradhapura period (750–850), late 8th centurySri LankaCopper alloy

Seated Crowned and jeweled Buddha, Pala period (ca. 700–1200), late 10th century; Kurkihar styleBihar, IndiaBronze with silver, lapis lazuli, and rock-crystal inlays

pre medieval india 1000 1400 c e
Pre-Medieval India 1000-1400 c.e.

In the North, Buddhism wanes while Islam moves in with Muslim expansion

1000-1250 miniature paintings become popular—religious manuscript paintings. Buddhist and Jainism work: linear, flat style, and limited palette.

Jain temples erected

Urdu language develops

1225: The Qutb Minar, tallest minaret—a tower from which the adhan, or call to prayer, is announced, built in Delhi

Pair of manuscript covers with Buddhist deities, late 11th century Nepal Distemper on wood; Each: 2 1/8 x 22 1/8 in. (5.4 x 56.2 cm) Fletcher and Rogers Funds, 1976 (1976.192.1-2)

pre medieval india south 1000 1400 c e
Pre-Medieval India: South 1000-1400 c.e.

Buddhism declines; Islam becomes dominate religion except for Sri Lanka

Brihadeshvara Temple 1000 ce built

1000-1300 Metal sculptures produced in Chola kingdom

Jain temple of Mount Abu 1030 ce.

1290 Marco Polo lands in Tamil Nadu and sails up Malabar Coast on return from China.

1343 Vijayanagar, capital city, is built


Shiva as Lord of Dance (Nataraja), Chola period (ca. 860–1279), ca. 11th century, Tamil Nadu, India, Copper alloy; H. 26 7/8 in. (68.3 cm), Diam. 22 1/4 in. (56.5 cm)Gift of R. H. Ellsworth Ltd., in honor of Susan Dillon, 1987 (1987.80.1)

  • Dilwara Jain Temple - Mount Abu
india the mughal empire
India: The Mughal Empire
  • 1398 Monguls sack Dehli led by Timur
  • 1414-1451 battles between Indian and Monguls
  • Babur, succeeds/son of Timur (1483-1530)
  • 1498 Portuguese arrive on west coast of India
  • 1510 Portuguese control of East India spice trade
  • 1523 Battle of Panipat=rule of Mughal dynasty
  • Akbar (1542-1605) Akbar ruler of Mughal dynasty-policy of religious tolerance
  • India as center of civilization
  • Urdu language
  • Artistic blend of Hindu, Persian, and Islamic elements
india mughal art
IndiaMughal Art


  • Mosques, palaces, walled cities, forts
  • Indian techniques, Arabic innovations
    • Dome, pointed arch, minaret
  • Taj Mahal at Agra (Shah Jehan)
    • Tomb, monument for Banu Begam
india mughal art1
IndiaMughal Art


  • Babur’s Baba-nama (Turkish)
  • Literary devotion of Homayun
    • Poetry (Persian)
india mughal art2
IndiaMughal Art

Visual Arts

  • Book illustrations, miniatures
  • Secular
    • Realistic scenes from courtly life
  • Persian influences
    • calligraphy

Calligraphic dish, 'Adil Shahi period (1490–1686), ca. 1600India, Deccan, BijapurCopper alloy; cast; H. 1/4 in. (0.6 cm), Diam. 5 7/8 in. (14.9 cm)

The Gopis Beseech Krishna to Return Their Clothing: Page from the Dispersed "Isarda" Bhagavata Purana(Ancient Stories of Lord Vishnu), ca. 1560–65India, probably Delhi–Agra area Ink and opaque watercolor on paper; 7 5/8 x 10 1/8 in. (19.4 x 25.7 cm) Gift of the H. Rubin Foundation, Inc. 1972 (1972.260)

Carpet with palm trees, ibexes, and birds, Mughal period (1526–1858), late 16th–early 17th centuryPresent–day Pakistan, LahoreCotton (warp and weft), wool (pile); asymmetrically knotted pile; L. 328 in. (833.1 cm), W. 108 in. (274.3 cm)Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917 (17.190.858)

india the end of mughal rule and the arrival of the british
IndiaThe End of Mughal Rule and the Arrival of the British
  • 1600 Queen Elizabeth I grants charter to East India Company
  • 1605-1627 Jahangir succeeds Akbar: blends Indian & Persian cultures-flourishing of art
  • Aurangzeb (1618-1707)
    • Islam vs. Hindu
  • Sikhism
  • 1627-1658 Shah Jahan succeeds Jahangir-builds Taj Mahal
  • 1641 British East India Trading Company sets up first factories
  • 1741 Battle of Plassey: East India Company gains control of Bengal.
  • India as “Jewel in the Crown” of Britain
    • Controlled by British government by 1849

The Glorification of Akbar: Leaf from the Shah Jahan Album, Mughal, period of Jahangir (1605–27)Attributed to Govardhan (active ca. 1596–1645)Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper


Four Portraits: Leaf from the Shah Jahan Album, Mughal, period of Jahangir (1605–27), ca. 1610–15By Balchand, Daulat, MuradIndiaInk, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper

india the rise of nationalism
IndiaThe Rise of Nationalism
  • India’s National Congress Party
    • Strive for self-rule
  • Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)
    • Satyagraha
  • Visual Arts
    • Subodh Gupta (b. 1964)
    • Satyajit Ray (1921-1992)

Escapade at Night: A Nobleman Climbs a Rope to Visit His Beloved, ca. 1800–1810 Attributed to Chokha (Indian, active 1799–1825) India (Rajasthan, Mewar) Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper; overall 12 1/4 x 16 1/8 in. (31.1 x 41 cm)


A Syce Holding Two Carriage Horses, mid-19th century India (Calcutta) Ink and opaque watercolor on paper; 12 x 20 in. (30.5 x 50.8 cm)


View of a Mosque and Gateway in Motijhil Bengal, British period (1858–1947), ca. 1814–23 Attributed to Sita Ram (Indian, active 1814–23) India, Bengal Opaque watercolor on paper; painting: H. 13 in. (33 cm), W. 19 1/4 in. (48.9 cm)


Pavement School, Jaipur, 1948 Henri Cartier–Bresson (French, 1908–2004) India Gelatin silver print; 13 7/16 x 8 7/8 in. (34.2 x 22.6 cm)


Chess Players, Banaras Floods, 1967, printed 1991 Raghubir Singh (Indian, 1942–1999) Chromogenic print; 10 x 14 7/8 in. (25.4 x 37.8 cm)

japan early japanese history and culture
JapanEarly Japanese History and Culture
  • Capital from Nara to Kyoto
  • Shift from Buddhism to Shintoism
  • Japanese writing system, literature
    • Poetry
    • Theater (Noh plays)
    • Murasaki’s novel Tale of Genji
    • Shonagon’s pillow-book
japan the period of feudal rule
JapanThe Period of Feudal Rule
  • Kakamura (1185)
  • Samurai-dokoro, Shogun
    • Control of samurai
  • Rise of the warrior class
  • Age of the Warring States (1467-1568)
    • Daimyo vs. Shogun
    • Introduction of firearms
japan the period of feudal rule1
JapanThe Period of Feudal Rule
  • Landscapes, portraits, and narrative scrolls
    • The Three Sacred Shrines at Kumano
      • Homage to Japanese landscape
    • The Sage Kuya Invoking the Amida Buddha
      • Realism
      • Attempt to render speech
japan the edo period
JapanThe Edo Period
  • Rule of the Tokugawa family (1543-1868)
  • Japanese versions of landscapes
    • Gentler colors, heightened abstraction
    • Hasegawa Tohaku (1760-1849)
  • Woodblock art
    • Hokusai Katsushika (1760-1849)
japan the edo period1
JapanThe Edo Period
  • Basho’s Haiku
    • Buddhist, Zen Buddhist reflections
    • Crucial detail of landscapes
  • Saikaku, Life of an Amorous Woman
    • Overt eroticism, tales of homosexuality
  • Monzaemon, The Love Suicide at Amijima
    • Kabuki drama
modern japan the meiji
Modern Japan:The Meiji
  • Commodore Perry, trade with America
  • Mitsuhito’s “Enlightened Government”
    • Radical program of reform
    • Strong central government
    • Military program
    • Industrialization
japan contemporary japanese arts
JapanContemporary Japanese Arts
  • Akira Kurosawa (Japan)
    • Rashomon (1950), Seven Samurai (1954), Kagemusha (1980), Throne of Blood (1957), Ran (1985)
  • Hybridity in the Visual Arts
    • Godzilla: King of the Monsters!
    • Takashi Murakami (b. 1962)
      • Pop art
chapter nineteen discussion questions
Chapter Nineteen: Discussion Questions
  • To what extent did religious and cultural tolerance of the Moghal empire affect the arts of the period? Explain, citing specific examples. What was the effect of a loss of tolerance?
  • What were the positive effects of China’s resistance to Western cultural influences? How did the country’s isolation ultimately serve to undo it political and social stability? Explain.
  • What was the function of art in Communist China? Explain.
  • What was the result of outside influence into Japanese culture during the Period of Feudal Rule and beyond into the Meiji? Consider the far-reaching effects (both positive and negative) of this influence to the people and culture of Japan.
china the song dynasty
ChinaThe Song Dynasty
  • Instituted civil-service examinations
    • Meritocracy
  • Ability and education important
  • Created printing with moveable type
  • Magnetic compasses
  • Song Dynasty Art
    • Fan Kuan (ca. 960-1030)
      • Monumental style
    • Zhou Jichang
china the ming dynasty
ChinaThe Ming Dynasty
  • Political, economic stability
  • Cultural enrichment
  • Confucianism
  • New literary genres
    • Huaben
    • Novels
    • Stage plays
china the ming dynasty1
ChinaThe Ming Dynasty

Art and Architecture

  • Landscape paintings
    • Human form in natural setting
  • Artistic attitudes
    • “change within tradition”
    • No distinctions between major art forms
  • Painted ceramicware, “China”
  • Lacquerware
china the ming dynasty2
ChinaThe Ming Dynasty

Art and Architecture

  • Architecture tied to Confucianism
  • Kublai Khan (c. 1216-1294)
    • Marco Polo (c. 1254-1324)
  • The Forbidden City
    • South vs. North
    • Traditional symbolic values
china the qing dynasty
ChinaThe Qing Dynasty
  • Kangxi (1654-1722)
    • Synthesized local, central administration
    • Introduced Western arts, education
    • Jesuit missionaries
  • Qing Dynasty Literature
    • 300 Tang Poems
  • Qing Dynasty Art
    • Further developed porcelain ceramics
    • Shitao (1641-1707)


Shitao,“River-bank of Peach Blossoms,” ca. 1700

the qing dynasty china and the western powers
The Qing Dynasty:China and the Western Powers
  • Western Trade and Chinese Independence
  • Opium War (1839-1842)
  • Internal rebellions weakened gov’t
    • Tai Ping Rebellion, Boxer Rebellion
  • The Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule
  • Republican Revolution
    • Sun Yat-sen
    • Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-tung

19.15 “Women Hold Up Half of Heaven and, Cutting Through Mountains and Rivers, Change to a New Attitude,” 1970

china today
China Today
  • 21st century economic powerhouse
  • Hybrid communist/capitalist system
  • Some artists restricted and have lost privileges
    • Zhang Xiogang (b. 1958)
    • Luo Brothers
  • Boomtowns for contemporary architecture
    • Oriental Pearl Broadcasting Tower
    • Jin Mao Tower