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Distributed Learning

Distributed Learning

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Distributed Learning

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  1. Distributed Learning Anita Singh MD, CCFP Tamara Bahr B.A, B.Ed Chi Ming Chow MD, MSc, FRCPC

  2. Objectives • Define and describe the components of Distributed Learning • Describe the current evidence for the efficacy of Distributed Learning • Demonstrate some of different mediums for delivering educational material

  3. Objectives • Review the challenges and limitations of distributed learning • Look at opportunities in your own universities for distributed learning and for collaboration

  4. Distributed Learning • Distributed learning is an instructional model that involves using various information technologies to help students learn. Also known as computer-mediated instruction, it encompasses technologies such as video or audio conferencing, satellite broadcasting, and Web-based multimedia formats.

  5. Distributed Learning Distributed learning comes from the concept of distributed resources.

  6. Terms Used: • E-learning • Distance learning • Online learning

  7. Is Distributed Learning better than traditional forms of teaching??

  8. Efficacy of Distributed Learning There is no significant difference in outcomes with traditional curriculum and distributed learning

  9. So Why Do It?? Does Distributed Learning add value to the learning experience?

  10. Advantages • Ease of access to and interrogation of high volumes of diverse, learning resources

  11. Advantages • Opportunities for working live or asynchronous in collaboration with others from any where in the world

  12. Advantages • Choice of learning styles within the same package according to need of the learner • Multiple levels of engagement to different depths of understanding • Logging or tracking of activities

  13. Advantages • Education transcends time and space barriers, and takes place at a pace set by the students themselves. • Distributed learning gives learners greater responsibility for managing their own learning

  14. Pedagogy should drive your technology

  15. 7 Principles of PedagogyIMPLEMENTING THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES: Technology as Leverby Arthur W. Chickering and Stephen C. Ehrmann

  16. 4. Provide Prompt Feedback 5. Emphasize time on task 6. Communicate High Expectations Expecting learners to perform well becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy 7. Respect diverse talents and ways of learning

  17. 1. Encourage contact between learners and faculty 2. Develop reciprocity and cooperation among learners – “Learning is social – not competitive and isolated” 3. Use active learning techniques. Better information recall when student interacts with content

  18. Application of the Seven Principles of Pedagogy and Technology

  19. Principle 1 Encourage contact between learners and faculty

  20. Technology/Strategies Asynchronous Email, Bulletin boards Synchronous Live Chat Skype,MSN Audio/Video Conferencing Arranging for one-on-one communications Note: Small class size or small groups helps this to be more successful

  21. Principle 1Encourage contact between learners and faculty • Engage in deeper dialogue over time • Accommodates different schedules/ places • Collective knowledge shared/ distributed • Increased opportunity for collaboration • More thoughtful contributions (Because users are more conscious of their work) Benefits

  22. Examples of Use • Standard tools in LMS • No special software or skills necessary • Setback: Some students are hesitant to post publicly • http://portal.utoronto.ca

  23. Principle 2 Develop reciprocity and cooperation among learners – “Learning is social – not competitive and isolated”

  24. Technology/Strategies • Online Community Chat forums • Instant messaging • Blogging • Resource pooling/sharing • Online community sites and resources Collaborative projects (web development, Community of Practice…)

  25. Benefits • Learner to learner interaction • Collaboration among students separated by geography and time is enhanced using Internet tools to create a sense of community

  26. Example of Use • End of Life Care Distance Learning Program • http://icarus.med.utoronto.ca/eolCare/index.htm

  27. Principle 3 Use active learning techniques. Better information recall when student interacts with content

  28. Technology/Strategies Simulations and contextual anchoring • Contextual anchoring – provide learner with realistic scenarios As in the Palliative Care E-Learning Program • Require student interaction to generate outcomes

  29. Examples of Use • http://palliative.utorontoeit.com/ • http://palliative.utorontoeit.com/module2/06.htm • http://link.library.utoronto.ca/MyUTL/guides/index.cfm?guide=palliativecare

  30. Principle 4 Provide Prompt Feedback

  31. Technology/Strategies • **Provide immediate feedback via discussion boards (for discourse models) • Rubrics - Learners need help in assessing their existing knowledge and competence • Monitor academic progress - e-portfolio can be used for peer review, self assessment, and instructor graded

  32. Example of Use • E-portfolio tool is built into many LMS’ • http://portal.utoronto.ca

  33. Principle 5 Emphasize time on task

  34. Technology/Strategies Flexible and Intuitive Course Design • Provide completion timelines where possible • Keep units structured the same as much as possible • Use course calendar tool • Course announcements

  35. Examples of Use • Dynamic course calendar and announcements • Structured modules • http://portal.utoronto.ca

  36. Principle 6 Communicate High Expectations Expecting learners to perform well becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy

  37. Technology/Strategies Publishing for a Global Audience • Many learners 'feel stimulated by knowing their finished work will be "published." If they know other learners will see their work, learners usually set higher goals for themselves.

  38. Examples of Use • Wiki sites http://www.wikimedia.org/ • Blog sites http://blogspot.com • E-portfolio and peer review: tools are built into many LMS’ and there are websites that facilitate this too

  39. Principle 7 Respect diverse talents and ways of learning

  40. Technology/ Strategies • Multimedia Content: Video/ Audio • Learners prefer high media to text ratio • Encourages development of visual recognition/ auditory skills needed in clinical practice • Learn from modeling of professional behaviour • Provide alternative formats

  41. Custom PowerPoint with audio • Flash objects • http://www.edheads.org/activities/knee/ • Learning Object Repositories • HEAL www.healcentral.org/ • MERLOT http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm • There are many rapid development tools on the market Captivate, Articulate, Producer, Flash to name a few. All come with a learning curve Examples of Use

  42. Resources • IMPLEMENTING THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES: Technology as Lever http://www.tltgroup.org/programs/seven.html • Discovery Commonswww.discoverycommons.ca • E-Learning in Palliative care • http://palliative.utorontoeit.com/ • http://palliative.utorontoeit.com/module2/06.htm • http://link.library.utoronto.ca/MyUTL/guides/index.cfm?guide=palliativecare

  43. References Continued • http://www.edheads.org/activities/knee • Wikis http://www.wikimedia.org/ • Blogs http://blogspot.com • Learning Objects • Health Education Assets Library (HEAL) free digital resources for health sciences educators (peer reviewed) www.healcentral.org/ • Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching MERLOT http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm

  44. Tips On Doing This Successfully • Know your audience • Identify your learning outcomes • Identify What you can and can’t do

  45. Tips On Doing This Successfully 4. Know your technology and what is available 5. Pedagogy should drive technology 6. Know your limitations human and financial

  46. Challenges • Time • Money • Grants • Expertise • i.e. Summer Student Project