Global Human Resource Management&Accounting in the International Business 組員：劉倚帆。周珈慶。張詩卿。詹新韡。王振宇
Human Resource Management • HRM：Refers to the activities an organization carries out to use its human resources effectively. • Four major tasks of HRM • Staffing policy • Management training and development • Performance appraisal • Compensation policy
The Strategic Role of International HRM • In this chapter we will see that success also requires HRM policies to be congruent with the firm’s strategy. • For example, a transnational strategy imposes different requirements for staffing, management development, and compensation practices than a localization strategy.
The Role Of Human Resource in Shaping Organization Architecture
Staffing Policy • Staffing policy • Selecting individuals with requisite skills to do a particular job • Tool for developing and promoting corporate culture • Types of Staffing Policy • Ethnocentric • Polycentric • Geocentric
Ethnocentric Staffing Policy • A ethnocentric staffing policy is one in which all key management positions filled by parent-country nationals. • Ex：Japanese & South Korean firms
Ethnocentric Staffing Policy • Advantages: • Overcomes lack of qualified managers in host nation • Unified culture • Helps transfer core competencies • Disadvantages: • Limits advancement opportunities for host-country nationals. • Cultural myopia • Ex：Mitsubishi Motors
Polycentric Staffing Policy • A polycentric staffing policy recruits host-country nationals to manage subsidiaries while parent-company nationals occupy key positions at corporate headquarters. • Ex：台灣佳企電子 Mcdonald’s
Polycentric Staffing Policy • Advantages: • Alleviates cultural myopia • Inexpensive to implement • Disadvantages: • Limits opportunity to gain experience of host country nationals outside their own country • Can create gap between home and host country operations • Federation • Ex：Unilever
Geocentric Staffing Policy • A geocentric staffing policy seeks the best people for key jobs throughout the organization, regardless of nationality. • Ex：花王
Geocentric Staffing Policy • Advantages: • Enables the firm to make best use of its human resources • Equips executives to work in a number of cultures • Helps build strong unifying culture and informal management network • Disadvantages: • National immigration policies may limit implementation • Expensive to implement due to training and relocation • Compensation structure can be a problem
Expatriate Managers • Expatriate: citizens of one country working in another. • Ethnocentric policy：the expatriates are all home country nationals who transferred abroad. • Geocentric policy：the expatriates need not be home country nationals；the firm does not base transfer decisions on nationality. • Inpatrites: expatriates who are citizens of a foreign country working in the home country of their multinational employer • Ex：Acer
Expatriate failure • Expatriate failure: premature return of the expatriate manager to his/her home country
Expatriate Selection • Reduce expatriate failure rates by improving selection procedures. • An executive’s domestic performance does not (necessarily) equate to his/her overseas performance potential. • Employees need to be selected not solely on technical expertise, but also on cross-cultural fluency .
Training of expatriates A Well-designed lesson Expatriates success • Lesson
Training of expatriates Development
Training of expatriates TRAINING DEVELOPMENT • Training and development • Global competition • Cross-company
Training of expatriates • Reasons of failure • Expatriate not adapted to the environment • Family • Solution training • Cultural training • Language training • Practice training
Training of expatriates • Cultural training • Increasing the familiarity to the environment • Ease the conflict between the different cultural • Language training • English maybe not the only • New language helps a lot
Training of expatriates • Practice training • Life style • Expatriate group
Repatriation • Problems • Where? • What? • Issue – the first or the last process?
Management development and strategy • Development programs designed to increase the overall skill levels of managers through: • Ongoing management education • Rotation of managers through a number of jobs within the firm to give broad range of experiences • Ends • Integration performance
Appraisal • Problems • Bias • Hostcountry • Homecountry • Guideline • Reduce the biasthat caused by different culturalmisunderstanding
Compensation • Issues • Pay executives in different countries according to the standards in each country or equalize pay on a global basis • Method of payment
Expatriate Pay • Typically use balance sheet approach • Equalizes purchasing power to maintain same standard of living across countries • Provides financial incentives to offset qualitative differences between assignment locations
Components of Expatriate Pay • Base Salary • Same range as a similar position in the home country • Foreign service premium • Extra pay for work outside country of origin • Allowances • Hardship, housing, cost-of-living, and education allowances • Taxation • Firm pays expatriate’s income tax in the host country • Benefits • Level of medical and pension benefits identical overseas
International labor relations • Key Issue • Degree to which organized labor can limit the choices of an international business • Aims to foster harmony and minimize conflicts between firms and organized labor • Concerns of Organized Labor • Strategy of Organized Labor • Relationshipbetweenfirmsandorganizedlabor
Concerns of organized labor Betterfees,safetyandconditions Bargainingpower Attempts to import employment practices and contractual agreements from multinational’s home country
Strategy of organized labor Attempts to establish international labor organizations Lobby for national legislation to restrict multinationals Attempts to achieve international regulations on multinationals through such organizations as the United Nations
國際企業會計 Accounting in the International Business
Introduction the language of business International business are confronted with a number of accounting problems that do not confront purely domestic business. IASB International Accounting Standards Board
Country Differences in Accounting Standards • Different countries have different accounting systems. • In many European countries , government regulations require firms to publish detailed information about their training and employment policies .
Factors influence the development of a country’s accounting system • The relationship between business and the providers of capital. • Political and economic ties with other countries. • The level of inflation. • The level of a country’s economic development. • The prevailing culture in a country.
Relationship Between Business and Providers of capital • United States and the Great Britain Both have well-developed stock and bond markets. • Switzerland, Germany, and Japan, a few large banks satisfy most of the capital needs of business enterprises.
Political and economic ties with other countries • The U.S.system has influenced accounting practices in Canada and Mexico, and since passage of NAFTA. • The accounting systems of EU members such as Great Britain, Germany, and France have been quite different, but under EU rules, they are now converging on IASB norms.
Inflation Accounting • Many countries accounting is based on the historic cost principle. • If inflation is high, the historic cost principle underestimates a firm’s assets. • 1980current cost accounting
Level of Development • Developed nations tend to have large, complex organizations. • Accounting problems are far more difficult than those of small organizations.
CULTURE Uncertainty avoidance refers to the extent to which cultures socialize their members to accept ambiguous situations and tolerate uncertainty.
case • Enron~ The Smartest Guys in The Room • 安隆企業破產案是美國華爾街史上最大的商業醜聞。造成員工失業、員工領不到退休金，也造成投資人血本無歸等諸多問題。 • 安隆企業曾是美國第七大企業，掌握能源及電力的未來價格。 • 跨國企業與其查核會計公司間的假帳密謀。 • 全球五大會計師事務所之一的亞瑟安達信被美國證期會吊銷執照。
National and International Standards • Accounting standards • Rules for preparing financial statements • Auditing standards • Rules for performing an audit