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Standards. Definition of standard.

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definition of standard
Definition of standard

A technical specification or other document available to the public, drawn up with the cooperation and consensus or general approval of all interests affected by it, based on the consolidated results of science, technology and experience, aimed at the promotion of optimum community benefits

  • British Standards Institute, 1981
standards are checklists
Standards are checklists
  • (like a pilot’s checklist)
  • Remind you of things you may forget
  • Force you to acknowledge the consequences of not doing one of the tasks on the standard
  • Don’t build the list from scratch: use one built by hundreds or thousands of professionals
comparison of standards
Comparison of Standards

External Product



Internal Product

safe pushchairs

safe software

comparison of standards1
Other engineering:

guidelines for product evaluation

guidelines for acceptable outcomes

Software engineering

guidelines for process

guidelines for techniques

few guidelines for product evaluation

Comparison of Standards
software engineering standards
Software Engineering Standards
  • Technical specifications available to public
  • Consensus, but not necessarily of all affected parties (usually by committee)
example 1228 1994 ieee standard for software safety plans
Example: 1228-1994 IEEE Standard for Software Safety Plans

Abstract: The minimum acceptable requirements for the content of a software safety plan are established. This standard applies to the software safety plan used for the development, procurement, maintenance, and retirement of safety-critical software. This standard requires that the plan be prepared within the context of the system safety program. Only the safety aspects of the software are included. This standard does not contain special provisions required for software used in distributed systems or in parallel processors

example 1008 1987 r1993 ieee standard for software unit testing
Example: 1008-1987 (R1993) IEEE Standard for Software Unit Testing

1. Scope and References

2. Definitions

3. Unit Testing Activities

3.1 Plan the General Approach, Resources, and Schedule.

3.2 Determine Features To Be Tested

3.3 Refine the General Plan

3.4 Design the Set of Tests

3.5 Implement the Refined Plan and Design

3.6 Execute the Test Procedures

3.7 Check for Termination

3.8 Evaluate the Test Effort and Unit

partial list of standards
Partial list of standards

610.12-1990 IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology

1062, 1998 Edition IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Acquisition

1228-1994 IEEE Standard for Software Safety Plans

1233, 1998 Edition IEEE Guide for Developing System Requirements Specifications

730-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans

828-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Configuration Management Plans

partial list of standards1
Partial list of standards

1008-1987 (R1993) IEEE Standard for Software Unit Testing

1012-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Verification and Validation

1028-1997 IEEE Standard for Software Reviews

1045-1992 IEEE Standard for Software Productivity Metrics

1058-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Project Management Plans

1074-1997 IEEE Standard for Developing Software Life Cycle Processes

1219-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Maintenance

partial list of standards2
Partial list of standards

1540-2001 IEEE Standard for Software Life Cycle Processes--Risk Management

1061-1998 IEEE Standard for a Software Quality Metrics Methodology

829-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation

830-1998 IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications

1016-1998 IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Design Descriptions

1044-1993 IEEE Standard Classification for Software Anomalies

classification of standards
Classification of standards
  • Reference only
  • Subjective
  • Partially Objective
  • Objective
four categories of se standards
Four categories of SE Standards
  • Process
    • The Design Team shall validate the Software Specification by ...
  • Internal Product
    • e.g. code: “each module should have a single entry and exit
  • External Product
    • e.g. reliability
  • Resources
motivation for standards
Motivation for standards
  • Provide encapsulation of best practice
  • Avoid repetition of past mistakes
  • Provide framework for quality assurance (assure that standard has been followed)
  • Assist in continuity between workers
standards organizations
Standards organizations
  • IEEE
  • ANSI
  • US DoD
  • NATO
  • Bureau of Standards
how to use standards
How to use standards
  • Review standards regularly and update to reflect changing technology
  • Provide software tools when possible. Clerical standards are a source of complaint
“In many modern standards, the only truly mandatory activity is tailoring the standard to your particular needs.”
          • Lewis Gray
walkthrough of do178b
Walkthrough of DO178B
  • Software Development Standard for avionics
  • Handbook for problem areas of software development
  • Catalog of certification requirements
faa certification
FAA Certification
  • The FAA certifies systems, not software
do178b process
DO178B Process
  • Planning
  • Requirements
  • Design
  • Coding
  • Integral Processes
do178 process planning
DO178 Process: Planning
  • Languages: syntax, naming conventions, coding conventions, bounds on term complexity, indentation standards ...
  • Tools: which tools, which subsets, ...
  • Hardware: may be very stringent
  • Methods
do178b planning
DO178B Planning
  • Describe tasks needed to meet task objectives, such as code reviews, walkthroughs, change control, audits,
  • Describe when processes occur, when processes exit, and who is responsible
do178b design
DO178B Design
  • How will requirements be satisfied?
  • Need
    • architecture
    • algorithms/data structures
    • I/O Description
    • Data and control flow descriptions
    • Resource strategies
    • Scheduling and communication
do178b coding
DO178B Coding
  • Implement low-level requirements
  • Integration: load software onto target
  • Cannot patch software: need to recertify entire system (expensive)
do178b integral process
DO178B Integral Process


test generation





Hardware integration


Requirements coverage




Requirements coverage


do178b testing
DO178B Testing
  • MCDC: Every atomic predicate is tested
  • last 5% of test cases are difficult to generate
  • Rockwell: 30% of development budget is in structural testing
do178b tools
DO178B Tools
  • Must certify for each system: previous qualification efforts don’t transfer
  • Qualify the tool or qualify the output?
  • Qualifying a verification tool is easier than qualifying a synthesis tool