Announcements • Fellowships • Congressional Executive Committee on China • Pickering • Guest speakers • Read Zhu Keliang, et al., “The Rural Land Question in China,” NYU Journal of International Law & Policy Vol. 38 (2005), pp. 768-800 (Sections II-III required; Sections I and IV-VII optional.) • Prepare one question (typed, with name) for the guests to be submitted at the beginning of class.
Announcements • “Pre-test” / “Post-test” • Make sure first 4 questions are complete. • Turn to the final 3 questions • Danwei (work unit)
Cultural Revolution and the study of non-democratic regimes • Lack of institutional checks on political authority readily allows extreme policies • Lack of institutionalized mechanisms to address • policy debates, • leadership transitions, and • mass participation in politics can lead to violence, instability
Video clip • Video clip (10, 01:05:53-01:18:50) Cultural Revolution • China: A Century of Revolution • Part II: The Mao Years, 1949-1976 • produced in 1994 • Points to pay attention to: • Policy conflict • Tensions among the top leadership • How ordinary people used the Cultural Revolution for their own purposes.
Cultural Revolution: Mass participation(Reading by Perry) • What motivates ordinary people? • Economism • Explained by group characteristics and interests • Especially excluded groups • Example: temporary vs. permanent SOE workers • Review on your own the other • Conservatism • Explained by party networks • Rebellion • Explained by psychological factors • Gap between ambition and achievement
Cultural Revolution: Policy Conflict struggle over correct vision/policies “Capitalist tendencies” Free markets, private agricultural plots Maoist policies Eliminate market signals, communal ownership, egalitarianism
Cultural Revolution: Policy conflict Series of campaigns to reassert Maoist values and developmental priorities Socialist Education Movement, 1963-66 revive commune system in agriculture Mao perceived that campaigns failed because of obstructionism by Communist party apparatus Contrast moderate rural policy post-GLF Learn from Dazhai Radically egalitarian agricultural policies (Chen Village) Other campaigns in health, education, and culture Health: ex—doctors to the countryside Education: ex—integrating manual labor into curriculum Culture: Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan
Cultural Revolution: Policy conflict Series of campaigns to reassert Maoist values and developmental priorities Learn from the PLA under Minister of Defense Lin Biao, 1963 “red” (Cult of Mao—”Little Red Book”) and expert (nukes)
Cultural Revolution: Policy conflict Radical Maoist Vision for China “Socialist new born things” education health industry culture agriculture party affairs Learn from Daqing (industry) Learn from Dazhai (agriculture) May 7th Cadre Schools (party affairs)
Cultural Revolution: Leadership succesion Organization of CCP undermined Absence of institutionalized succession processes dramatized Liu Shaoqi Lin Biao (Mao’s “close comrade-in-arms” and successor) Gang of Four Deng Xiaoping Legitimacy of CCP undermined
Battle Lines Drawn:Overview of the Political Spectrum as of 1969Mao *1967 house arrest
Overview of the Political Spectrum as of 1969(*Gang of Four, arrested 1976)Mao (d. 1976)
Cultural Revolution and the study of non-democratic regimes • Risks of violating separation of civilian and military leadership • Undermines military professionalism • Increases threat of military coup • Demonstration of interplay between domestic politics and foreign policy
Cultural Revolution: civil-military relations Address collapse of party authority Restore order, restore production, govern 3-in-1 committees 1: PLA (army) 2: CCP (“uncorrupted” party cadres) 3: Representatives of “the masses”
Cultural Revolution: civil-military relations PLA itself being drawn into conflict Local commanders closer to CCP Risk of splitting military—civil war?
Cultural Revolution: civil-military relations 1969-71: Civil-Military Conflict Struggle between PLA and CCP CCP Seeks to rebuild itself Seeks to reassert primary of party over army Soviet threat: “Brezhnev Doctrine” PLA, Lin Biao Dual threats from US, USSR Aggrandizes PLA CCP Talks with Kissinger (1971) PRC UN seat (1971)
Cultural Revolution: civil-military relations 1971-76: Party Conflict Phase US-China rapproachment Shanghai Communique (1972) Struggle for dominance within CCP
Cultural Revolution:civil-military relations Challenge norm of civilian control over military “party controls the gun” 9th CCP Central Committee (1969) 45% military 8th CCP Central Committee (1956) 29% military 1975 Mao brought Deng Xiaoping back to reorganize PLA PLA Chief of Staff Military Affairs Commission, V.Chairman Politburo Standing Committee, V. Chairman Interplay of domestic and foreign policy Sino-US-Soviet relations Doctrinal disputes Soviet threat (Brezhnev Doctrine, border clashes) bigger PLA or turn to USA
The Cultural Revolution (1966-76) is considered a period of totalitarian rule • Totalitarianism defined • Single charismatic leader • Single dominant party • Utopian, forward-looking ideology • State control over all organized activity • Note absence of private sphere • Example from • Chen Village? • Video clip? • danwei (work unit)? • Mobilized participation • Popular fear instilled by arbitrary terror
The Cultural Revolution (1966-76) is considered a period of totalitarian rule • Totalitarianism defined • Single charismatic leader • Single dominant party • Utopian, forward-looking ideology • State control over all organized activity • Note absence of private sphere • Example from Chen Village? • Private time (p. 80) • Broadcasts about individual behavior • Example from video clip? • Father and son “drawing a line” • Example from danwei (work unit)? • Potential for monitoring • Mobilized participation • Study sessions: had to speak up • 1980s lax until Tiananmen Sq; used to estab “line” • Popular fear instilled by arbitrary terror • Already Anti-Rightist Campaign • Quota of rightists for each unit