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English Sonnet. The Prologue to Act 1 of Romeo and Juliet is written in the form of an English sonnet . What does Prologue mean? An introductory speech, often in verse, calling attention to the theme of a play. English Sonnet.

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english sonnet
English Sonnet
  • The Prologue to Act 1 of Romeo and Juliet is written in the form of an English sonnet.
  • What does Prologue mean?
  • An introductory speech, often in verse, calling attention to the theme of a play.
english sonnet1
English Sonnet
  • The English sonnet has fourteen lines divided into threestanzas and one couplet.
  • It also has a certain rhyme scheme.
english shakespearean sonnet
English/Shakespearean Sonnet

Stanza: Rhyme scheme:

a

b

a

b

Quatrain

4 lines

c

d

c

d

Quatrain

4 lines

e

f

e

f

Quatrain

4 lines

Couplet

g

g

2 lines

english sonnet2
English Sonnet
  • English Sonnets have a certain meter(beat or rhythm.)
  • This meter is called iambic pentameter.
iambic pentameter
Iambic pentameter
  • Good BYE/good BYE/good BYE/good BYE/good BYE

iamb (iambic foot=1 pair)

Example: This entire line

Unstressed + stressed syllable

5 pairs = iambic pentameter

iambic pentameter1
Iambic pentameter

Iambic pentameter:

Each line=10 syllables =

5 pairs ofsyllables.

Pattern:unstressedstressed.

examples
Examples
  • I AM/a PI/rate WITH/a WOOD/en LEG
examples1
Examples
  • When I/do COUNT/the CLOCK/that TELLS/the TIME (Sonnet 12)
  • When IN/disGRACE/with FOR/tune AND/ men’s EYESI ALL/aLONE/be WEEP/my OUT/cast STATE (Sonnet 29)
  • Shall I/comPARE/thee TO/a SUM/mer’s DAY?
  • Thou ART/more LOVE/ly AND/more TEM/per ATE (Sonnet 18)
blank verse
Blank Verse
  • Unrhymediambicpentameter is called blank verse.
  • Blank verse is what Shakespeare used to write most of his plays
prologue reading
Prologue reading
  • Divide the first two lines into pairs of unstressed/STRESSED syllables (iambs)

2. Underline words in the prologue associated with LOVE or FIGHTING.

prologue
Prologue
  • In what city does the play take place?
  • Why are Romeo and Juliet called “star-crossed lovers?”
  • What other information do we learn from the Prologue?
  • What is the play going to be about? How does it end?
shakespeare wrote
Shakespeare wrote
  • Drama – genre (category) that includes comedies, histories and tragedies.
  • Comedies
    • Drama with funny twists.
  • Histories
    • Drama about historical figures.
  • Tragedies
    • Drama that ends in an unhappy way, most often death Romeo and Juliet.
prose
Prose
  • What is Prose?
  • The ordinary form of spoken or written language, without meter (a beat); prose is not poetry or verse.
prose1
Prose
  • Only characters in the lower social classes speak this way in Shakespeare’s plays
  • Why do you suppose that is?
dramatic foil
Dramatic Foil
  • A character whose traits are in direct contrastto the main character.
  • The purpose is to revealsomething about anothercharacter.
round characters
Round characters
  • Characters who have manypersonalitytraits, like real people. They are described indetail.
  • We know more about them than other characters.
flat characters
Flat Characters
  • We don’t have a lot of information about them.
  • They are not described in detail.
    • Shakespeare often uses them to provide comic relief even in a tragedy.
static characters
Static Characters
  • Characters within a story who remain the same.
  • They do not change their minds, opinions or character.
dynamic character
Dynamic Character
  • Characters that change somehow during the course of the plot.
  • They generally change for the better.
soliloquy
Soliloquy
  • A longspeech expressing the thoughts of a character, usually alone on stage.
  • The character is “thinkingoutloud.”
aside
Aside
  • Words spoken, usually in an undertone, notintendedto be heard by allcharacters.
  • Sometimes the character is speakingaside (“to one side”) to the audience.
slide22
Pun
  • Shakespeare loved to use them!!!
  • Humorous use of a word with two meanings;
    • Example: “There’s no point in writing with a broken pencil.”
    • “No pun intended!” 
direct address
Direct Address
  • Words that tell the reader (or audience) who is being addressed.

-Example -“A right fair mark, fair coz, is soonest hit.”

-“Ah, my mistresses, which of you all/ Will now deny to dance?”

irony
Irony
  • Dramatic - A contradiction between what a characterthinks and what the reader/audienceknows to be true.
irony1
Irony
  • Verbal - Words used to suggest the opposite of what is meant.
  • Sarcasm
irony2
Irony
  • Situational - Contrastbetween what happens and what was expected to happen.
comic relief
Comic Relief
  • The use of comedywithinserious/sad literatureor drama to provide “relief”.
  • In R & J, look for moments of comic relief that help “relieve” the tragedy of the situation.
allusion
Allusion

A briefreference, within a work, to somethingoutside of the work that the reader or audience is expected to know.

Many of Shakespeare’s allusions are to mythology or the Bible.

monologue
Monologue
  • Onepersonspeaking on stage.
  • Other characters may be on stage too.
  • They can all hear it.
meter
Meter
  • The regular pattern of accented and unaccentedsyllables in a line of poetry.
rhythm
Rhythm
  • Uniform or patterned recurrence of a beat or accent.
elizabethan words
An,and:If

Anon:Soon

Aye:Yes

But:Except for

Coz: cousin

E’en:Even

E’er:Ever

Thou:You (as in “you are”)

Thee:You (as in: “with you”)

Thy/Thine:Your/Yours

Thou art:You are

Elizabethan Words