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Energy in Marine Ecosystems: Marine Food Chains. Begins with the primary producer s They are autotrophs (‘self’-‘feeders’ ) - Organism capable of making organic compounds,

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Energy in marine ecosystems marine food chains

Energy in Marine Ecosystems:Marine Food Chains

Begins with the primaryproducers

They are autotrophs (‘self’-‘feeders’) - Organism capable of making organic compounds,

Photoautotrophs, such as plants,use solar energy to help make these compounds in a process known as photosynthesis.

Primary producers are consumed by primaryconsumers

Primary consumers , are heterotrophs(‘other’-‘feeders’)- Organisms incapable of making organic compounds from inorganic material, they obtain their nutrition by consuming autotrophs and derive energy through respiration.

Primary consumers are consumed by secondary consumers, a.k.a. tertiaryproducers.

And so on…Food chains vary in length.


Capture and flow of energy
Capture and Flow of Energy

The flow of energy through living systems.

© 2002 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.


The cycling of matter
The Cycling of Matter

The cycling of matter through living systems.

© 2002 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.


Food chains
Food Chains

  • Food Chain- Energy and matter move from one organism to another as each eats a lower member and, in turn, is eaten by a higher member


Decomposers
Decomposers

  • Organic matter not eaten by a higher-level consumer is decomposed by decomposers

    • Break down non-living organic matter into its original components: carbon dioxide, water and nutrients.

      • When this matter dissolves in the water and is known as dissolved organic matter (DOM).

      • Decomposers are important to the food web because they regenerate nutrients, which are then used by the autotrophs.

      • Ex: Fungi, Bacteria


Detritus
Detritus

  • Dead organic matter in solid form, such as decaying seaweeds, is called detritus.

    • Detritus is an important energy pathway in marine ecosystems because many organisms feed on it, especially those that live below the euphotic zone.

    • Marine Detritivores- Worms, sea cucumbers, clams



Trophic levels
Trophic Levels

  • Each ‘link’ in the food chain is called a trophic level. (troph means food)

    • 1st =Primary Producer

      • Ex: plants, algae

    • 2nd = Primary Consumer

      • Ex: Grazer, herbivores

    • 3rd = Secondary Consumer

      • Ex: Carnivores

    • 4th = Tertiary Consumer, etc…

  • At each level, detrivores and decomposers are turning biomass into nutrients


Food web
Food Web

  • Because organisms consume at various trophic levels, it is really more like a web, not a chain.



Antarctic ocean food web
Antarctic Ocean Food Web

Diatoms, and other primary producers, convert the energy from the sun into food used by the rest of the oceanic community.

© 2002 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.


Ecological efficiency and ecological pyramids
Ecological Efficiency and Ecological Pyramids

  • About 90% of biomass is lost when transferred from between trophic levels

    • Ecological efficiency= 10%

  • As trophic levels increase, biomass decreases

    • Why there are more squirrels than wolves in the world


Ecological pyramid
Ecological Pyramid

3° Cons.

1 g

2° Consumers

10 g

Primary Consumers

100 g

Primary Producers

1000 g Biomass




Feeding relationships
Feeding Relationships

© 2002 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.



Pelagic primary producers phytoplankton diatoms
Pelagic Primary ProducersPhytoplankton- Diatoms








Primary productivity
Primary Productivity

Oceanic productivity is measured in gC/ m2/yr.

© 2002 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.