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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS PART III D: CHINA LANDSLIDES. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE CHINA’S COMMUNITIES AT RISK. FLOODS. GOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE. TYPHOONS. EARTHQUAKES.
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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS PART III D: CHINALANDSLIDES Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE CHINA’S COMMUNITIES AT RISK FLOODS GOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE TYPHOONS EARTHQUAKES ENACT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES HAVING HIGH BENEFIT/COST FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE LANDSLIDESS DROUGHT EPISODES GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
LANDSLIDE HAZARDS • BLDG. INVENTORY • VULNERABILITY • LOCATION • PREPAREDNESS • PROTECTION • EARLY WARNING • EMERGENCY RESPONSE • RECOVERY and • RECONSTRUCTION LANDSLIDE RISK POLICY OPTIONS ACCEPTABLE RISK RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK GOAL: LANDSLIDE DISASTER RESILIENCE CHINA’S COMMUNITIES DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS
RISK ASSESSMENT • VULNERABILITY • EXPOSURE • EVENT • COST • BENEFIT LAND-SLIDES EXPECTED LOSS POLICY ADOPTION • CONSEQUENCES POLICY ASSESSMENT TOWARDS LANDSLIDE DISASTER RESILIENCE
LANDSLIDES LARGE VOLUME LANDSLIDES OCCUR IN ASSOCIATION WITH AN EARTHQUAKE’S GROUND SHAKING OR A TYPHOON’S RAINFALL
M8.0 BEICHUAN EARTHQUAKE GENERATED LARGE VOLUME LANDLIDES 2:30 PM LOCAL TIME MAY 12, 2008
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EARTHQUAKE • Epicenter was located 100 km (60 miles) from Chengdu, the provincial capital, which is on edge of the Tibetan foothills and home to about 10 million people. • This earthquake occurred on a well known fault zone, which has generated destructive earthquakes in the past (e.g., on 25 August 1933).
COMPARISON WITH 1976 TANGSHAN EARTHQUAKE • The Beichuan earthquake was more than 2 x larger than the July 28,1976 Tangshan earthquake, which caused 255,000+ deaths.
EMERGENCY RESOURCES • More than 20,000 military personnel were ordered immediately to assist in high-damage areas. • The number was increased substantially to deal with the “earthquake lakes.”
SOCIETAL IMPACTS OF THE LANDSLIDES • Some roads were impassable because of landslides, which hindered search and rescue,--- • but, worst of all, 69 unique “earthquake lakes” were created by the landslides in mountainous regions.
CAUSES OF DAMAGE SITING AND BUILDING ON UNSTABLE SLOPES SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO FALLS SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO TOPPLES SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO SPREADS LANDSLIDES SOIL AND ROCK SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOWS CASE HISTORIES PRECIPITATION THAT TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURE SHAKING GROUND SHAKING THAT TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURE
69 EARTHQUAKE LAKES Created by the quake-induced landslides
DAYS 14-17: CHINA EARTHQUAKE SURVIVORS NOW HAVING TO COPE WITH THREAT OF FLOODS FROM 69EARTHQUAKE LAKES
Sixty-nine “Quake Lakes” created in mountainous areas by the debris from landslides appeared ready to burst their banks, and continuing rainfall was exacerbating the threat. DAYS 14-17: GOVERNMENT MAKES RISK REDUCTION ON 69 "QUAKE LAKES" A TOP PRIORITY
$29 million in emergency funds and increased military resources were allocated for the priority effort.
Authorities announced plans to evacuate more than a million people in anticipation of failure of the rock-and-mud embankments. DAYS 14-17: GOVERNMENT PLANS EVACUATIONS TO REDUCE RISK IF A "QUAKE LAKE" SHOULD BURST
EVACUATION CHALLENGE Evacuation would have to be accomplished within one to four hours, the time for the wall of water to reach and inundate scores of cities and rural villages that were already devastated.
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE • ALL NATURAL HAZARDS • CAPACITY FOR INTELLIGENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE • ALL NATURAL HAZARDS • CAPACITY FOR RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTIONIS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.