Chapter 19 Reading Quiz. What are the proteins called around which DNA winds? What is the basic unit of DNA packing? The attachment of methyl groups to DNA bases after DNA is synthesized is known as..? What general effect does this process have on DNA? What are “oncogenes”?. Prokaryotic
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Found in the nucleoid region
Less elaborately structured and folded
Complexed with a large amount of protein to form chromatin
Highly extended and tangled during interphase
Found in the nucleus 1. Compare the organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes.
Chromatin that remains highly condensed during interphase and is NOT actively transcribed
Chromatin that is less condensed during interphase and IS actively transcribed
Becomes highly condensed during mitosis 4. Distinguish between heterochromatin and euchromatin.
8. Using -globin and -globin genes as examples, describe how multigene families of nonidentical genes probably evolve, including the role of transposition.
- can carry a gene that can be activated when inserted downstream from an active promoter and vice versa
- to insert it must be converted back to DNA by reverse transcriptase
- each chain has 2 regions: constant and variable
- variable gives each antibody its unique function
-Inactive DNA is usually highly methylated (adding methyl groups inactivates DNA)
- transcription proteins have easier access to genes in acetylated regions of DNA
Include the proximal control elements
Produces a low rate of initiation with few RNA transcripts
Unless DNA sequences can improve the efficiency by binding additional transcription factors
The more distant control elements
Bending of the DNA enables the transcription factors bound to enhancers to contact proteins of the transcription-initiation complex at the promoter 13. Explain the potential role that promoters and enhancers play in transcriptional control.
Prokaryotic genes that are turned on and off together are often clustered into operons which are transcribed into one mRNA molecule and translated together
Eukaryotic genes coding for enzymes of a metabolic pathway are often scattered over different chromosomes and are individually transcribed 14. Compare the arrangement of coordinately controlled genes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
- translation of all mRNAs can be blocked by the inactivation of certain initiation factors
- many eukaryotic polypeptides must be modified or transported before becoming biologically active by adding phosphates, chemical groups, etc.
- selective degradation of particular proteins and regulation of enzyme activity are also control mechanisms of gene expression