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Overview of heavy flavor v 2PowerPoint Presentation

Overview of heavy flavor v 2

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Overview of heavy flavor v2

ShinIchi Esumi, Inst. of Physics

Univ. of Tsukuba

(1) RAA and v2 of various particle species

meson/baryon and hadron/photon

hydro-collective flow and recombination

(2) Heavy flavor electron measurements

non-photonic electron RAA, pT slope, v2

charm quark collectivity (radial/elliptic)

(3) Future

single muon v2, D v2, J/y v2

STAR/PHENIX upgrade

I. Choi, W. Dong, M. Issah, R. Lacey,

H. Masui, S. Sakai, N. Xu, Z. Xu, Y. Zhang

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Nuclear modification factor : RAA, RCP

(1) suppression of hadrons in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

with respect to binary N-N collision scaling

(2) baryon vs meson difference

(3) no suppression in direct photon

RAA=yieldAA/(yieldpp*Ncoll_AA)

RCP=(yieldcent/Ncoll_cent)/(yieldperi/Ncoll_peri)

baryons

direct photon

mesons

hadrons

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Elliptic event anisotropy : v2

v2

0.2

0.1

0.0

f

N

DF

Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 032302 (2006)

baryons

mesons

(1) hydro-like mass ordering

(2) baryon/meson ordering

in hadron v2

R * v2(dire. g )

R = Ngincl. / Nghadronic

(3) The measurement (smaller v2) favors prompt photon

production for dominant source of direct photon.

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

mT + nquark scaling of v2

radial flow

A+A

mT slope

p+p

mass

WWND 2006, M. Issah

original hadron v2

mT scaling alone

KET = mT – mass (hadron)

quark number scaled v2

nquark scaling alone

mT + nquark scaling

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Hydro-trend at low pT & quark recombination at mid pT

v2

PHENIX preliminary

0-93% Au+Au 200GeV

H. Masui QM05

mT + nquark scaling

STAR preliminary

0-80% Au+Au 200GeV

Yan Lu SQM05

P. Sorensen SQM05

M. Oldenburg QM05

pT (GeV/c)

K0SL XW

This mT + nquarkscaling includes both hydro-trend and quark recombination, therefore it’s not really new. It gives a good description of large sets of data for wider pT region(low-pT to mid-pT), but fails at higher pT.

mT + nquark scaling

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Quark recombination needed also for J/Y data…

no recombination

no recombination

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Early freeze-out for f, X, W and J/y, but still flows

Compiled by N. Xu, SQM 2006

PHENIX (, K, p, J/): PRC69, 034909(04), QM05; STAR (, , ): QM05

RHIC

SPS

SPS

a hint for non-zero radial flow of J/y in early hadronic stage or flow of charm quark in late QGP phase

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Semi-leptonic decay of open-charm

Ne : inclusive electron yield

1.7%

0.8%

? %

1.1%

With converter

Conversion in converter

Photonic

W/O converter

Conversion from known material

Dalitz : 0.8% X0 equivalent

Non-photonic

0

material amounts : 0

cocktail method

converter method

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Non-suppressed total charm yield (lower pT)

Non-suppressed charm yield at low pT : they are initially produced and survived until the end, did they interact with the produced hot matter?

We do not know the answer, that’s why we also measure their v2 and pT slope.

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Radial flow of charm quark Yifei Zhang

AuAu Central charm hadron

AuAu Central strangeness hadron

another hint for

non-zero radial

flow of D-meson

or flow of charm

quark!?

AuAu Central , K, p

Brast-wave fit to D-meson and single electron and muon from D-meson decay spectra

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Inclusive electron v2 and photonic contribution

Estimation of photonic electron v2 :decay kinematics simulation and/or experimental determination via with/without converter measurement.

e v2 with converter to enhance photonic electron yield

Ratio of non-photonic over photonic electron yields (which is S/N) should be given in order to extract non-photonic electron v2.

e v2 without converter

photonic e v2line : estimated with p0 v2 measurement and simulation

Non-pho./pho.

Run04: X=0.4%

inclusive e v2

Run02: X=1.3%

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Extracted non-photonic electron v2

Nnon-ph. v2non-ph. + Nphot. v2phot.

v2incl. =

Nnon-ph. + Nphot.

coalescence model prediction.with/without charm quark flowGreco, Ko, Rapp: PLB 595 (2004) 202

the 3rd hint for non-zero elliptic flow of charm quark!?

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Extraction of D meson v2 Shingo Sakai

c2 test with one

free amplitude

parameter :

v2 = A * f(pT)

electron v2 from

D meson decay

D meson v2

Minimum c2 data are plotted

for each assumption

PHENIX preliminary data

(1) different v2(pt) shape

assumptions for D meson

(2) pT distribution by pythia tuned

to reproduce electron spectra

at 130GeV Au+Au

(3) c2 restricted up to pT<2GeV/c

D meson v2

D meson v2 : between p and d

massD meson ~ massdeuteron

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Extraction of charm quark v2Shingo Sakai

0

0

B. Zhang et al.,

nucl-th/0502056

mass effect in number of quark scaling

v2meson (pT) = v21 (R1 pT) + v22 (R2 pT)

Ri = mi / mM

(mi : effective mass of quark i)

(Phys.Rev. C68 (2003) 044901

Zi-wei & Dence Molnar)

v2π(pT) ~ 2*v2q(1/2pT)

v2D(pT) ~ v2u (1/6*pT) + v2c (5/6*pT)

Shingo preliminary

quark v2

u/d/(s) quarks v2

Different shape assumptions for D meson v2 are propagated from the previous page in order to extract charm quark v2, the same minimum c2 data are chosen again for each assumption.

c quark v2

quark pT (GeV/c)

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Electron v2 from B meson Shingo Sakai

Nelec.B

RBD =

Nelec.D + Nelec.B

1

RBD

to be determined

Experimentally

0

If B meson decay dominates non-photonic electron yield (RBD ~ 1) already at 2~3GeV/c (unlikely?),

v2B could be as large as v2D.

Otherwise, v2B should be smaller.

RBD measurement will be crucial.

v2

v2D = v2B : flat or decreasing

D -> e

B -> e (v2B : flat at high pT)

B -> e (v2B : decreasing at high pT)

pT

pT (GeV/c)

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Electron v2 analysis in STAR Weijiang Dong

Shower shape in EMC

dE/dx in TPC

Conversion and dalitz rejection with minv.

Momentum in TPC vs. Energy in EMC

The detector material in STAR caused too much photonic background, which caused huge systematic and statistical uncertainties. Our result is not sensitive enough to make any conclusion about heavy quark v2 so far. More work ahead! --- Weijiang, 8/Dec/2005

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

J/y v2, D v2, single muon v2

tracker

absorber

identifier

decay muon

99% hadron

absorbed

stopped hadron

punch-through hadron

collision vertex

range

prompt muon

> 90%

decay muon

number of full track

pun.-thr. had ~ few %

prompt muon ~ few %

z-vertex position

Ihnjea Choi

We only need high statistics for D, J/Y v2.

Hadron measurement in muon arm is “easy”.

We look for a few % prompt muon signal out of fully reconstructed tracks

~ 800(ee) +

~ 5000(mm) J/ys

from full run4

200GeV Au+Au

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Future upgrade of STAR/PHENIX detectors

A new reaction plane detector (1~|h|~2.5, <cos2DF> ~ 0.7,

Pb converter + scintillator)

in PHENIX this summer 2006

Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

PHENIX

muon arm

Vertex Tracker, Forward Calorimeter for PHENIX

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Thank you very much!

(1) RAA and v2 of various particle species

meson/baryon and hadron/photon

hydro-collective flow and recombination

(2) Heavy flavor electron measurements

non-photonic electron RAA, pT slope, v2

charm quark collectivity (radial/elliptic)

(3) Future

single muon v2, D v2, J/y v2

STAR/PHENIX upgrade

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

inclusive g and p0 v2

v2 of direct photon gives complimentary information in understanding the origin of binary scaled direct photon production.

Bresmsrahlung,

because of larger

energy loss

v2 < 0

fragmentation in vacuum, from escapedpartonv2 > 0

nucl-ex/0508019

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

R v2inclusive g – v2b.g.

v2b.g

v2direct g =

R =

R – 1

v2inclusive g

try to extract direct g v2

if v2direct g = 0

v2b.g. : expected g v2 from hadronic decays

nucl-ex/0508019

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

inclusive g and p0 v2

QM05 : Phenix preliminary run4

0-10 %

10-20 %

v2

p0

inclusive g

20-30 %

30-40 %

40-50 %

50-60 %

0 5 pT (GeV/c) 10

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Non-photonic electron (charm origin) RAA compared with p0 RAA

non-photonic electron v2 is similar with other hadronsat low pT but smaller at higher pT region 4~5GeV/c

photonic electron v2 originated from p0is above p0 v2 at low pT and similar to p0 v2 at high pT and subtracted already.

Non-photonic electron is less suppressed compared with p0, but it is still a significant suppression RAA~ 0.3 at higher pT region 4~5GeV/c

(1) q_hat = 0 GeV2/fm

(4) dNg / dy = 1000

(2) q_hat = 4 GeV2/fm

(3) q_hat = 14 GeV2/fm

Important note : RAA is much closer to unity at lower pT compared with p0 or other hadrons

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Non-photonic electron : charm (+beauty) RAA and v2

B. Zhang et al.

nucl-th/0502056

significant suppression at higher pT, almost same as p0 suppression above 5GeV/c

some difference between experiments at higher pT, which needs to be solved.

D-meson flows (+ve v2), should determine charm v2

b contribution

less suppression

less interaction

b contribution

less flow

less thermalized

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

Number of quark scaling of v2

rather good description above 1GeV/c in quark pT

remaining mass dependence at lower pT region

QM05 PHENIX

QM05 STAR

v2 is already formed during quark phase before hadronizationadditional hadronic flow might be there after hadronization

ShinIchi Esumi, Univ. of Tsukuba

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