CSE 301 History of Computing. World War II and the Stored Program Computer. Analog Computers. Instead of computing with numbers, one builds a physical model (an analog) of the system to be investigated Used when a system could not be readily investigated mathematically
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World War II and theStored Program Computer
The Differential Analyzer (MIT Museum)
Operator’s console of the Differential Analyzer (MIT Museum)
Close-up of wheel and disk
integrators on the machine
Close up of bus rods which carry
variables between different calculating
units (MIT Museum)
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZBDFHJLCPRTXVZNYEIWGAKMUSQO rotor1AJDKSIRUXBLHWTMCQGZNPYFVOE rotor2EKMFLGDQVZNTOWYHXUSPAIBRCJ rotor3 YRUHQSLDPXNGOKMIEBFZCWVJATreflector
After one letter is encoded, the first rotor rotates one position.
Once the first rotor rotates one whole turn, the second rotor rotates one position, ...
from Tony Sale,
original curator of the Bletchley Park Museum
Clifford Berry with the ABC (Ames Laboratory, DOE)
The only surviving fragment of the original ABC built in 1939.(Ames Laboratory, DOE)
(Virginia Tech –
History of Computing)
from U.S. Army Research Laboratory
Hungarian stampin his honor
von Neumann with his firstIAS computer
from the Archives of the Institute for Advanced Study
... his mind, the amulet on which he had always been able to rely, was becoming less dependable. Then came complete psychological breakdown; panic, screams of uncontrollable terror every night. His friend Edward Teller said, "I think that von Neumann suffered more when his mind would no longer function, than I have ever seen any human being suffer." Von Neumann's sense of invulnerability, or simply the desire to live, was struggling with unalterable facts. He seemed to have a great fear of death until the last... No achievements and no amount of influence could save him now, as they always had in the past. Johnny von Neumann, who knew how to live so fully, did not know how to die.
S J Heims, John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener:
From mathematics to the technologies of life and death(Cambridge,MA, 1980).
Replica of “Baby” from 1998, from University of Manchester
revised version of the first program run on the Baby, written by Tom Kilburn,
from University of Manchester
EDSAC I, from University of Cambridge