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SOCIAL CHANGE AGENTS & COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ON THE TIBETAN PLATEAU . Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar in China 2006. Prepared by Karen Krause. OUTLINE OF CONTENT. INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL CHANGE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL ENTRPRENUERS

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outline of content
OUTLINE OF CONTENT
  • INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL CHANGE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
  • SOCIAL ENTRPRENUERS
  • QINGHAI NORMAL UNIVERSITY – STUDENT COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
  • SHEM – TIBETAN WOMEN’S GROUP & COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
outline continued
OUTLINE(CONTINUED)

EXERCISE TO LEARN ABOUT

SOCIAL CHANGE

  • Community Development Projects
  • Change Agents/Social Entrepreneurs
  • Identifying and Examining Community Social Needs

WEB LINKS

social change
SOCIAL CHANGE
  • IN TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES, CHANGE OCCURS SLOWLY.
  • FAMILY AND COMMUNITY TRADITIONS USUALLY SPAN MANY GENERATIONS.
  • AS SOCIETIES MODERNIZE, SOCIAL CHANGE ACCELERATES.
causes of social change
CAUSES OF SOCIAL CHANGE
  • POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES
  • CULTURAL INNOVATION
  • INTRODUCTION OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND CULTURAL PRACTICES
  • PLANNED CHANGES
  • SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS
focus planned socal change
FOCUS:PLANNED SOCAL CHANGE
  • The Sociological Tradition
  • Applied Sociology
  • Social Entrepreneurs
    • Qinghai Province PRC
    • Shem Women’s Group
social change8
SOCIAL CHANGE:
  • THE FIRST SOCIOLOGISTS ENVISIONED USING SOCIOLOGY TO BUILD A BETTER WORLD.
  • FROM THE BEGINNINGS IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY, SOCIOLOGISTS SUCH AS COMTE WANTED TO APPLY SOCIOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING TO SOLVING SOCIAL PROBLEMS.
applying sociology early sociologists
APPLYING SOCIOLOGYEARLY SOCIOLOGISTS
  • KARL MARX FOCUSED ON TRANSFORMING THE SYSTEM OF STRUCTURED INEQUALITY IN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES.
  • DURKHEIM ADVOCATED FOR EDUCATIONAL REFORMS
sociologists in the united states
SOCIOLOGISTS IN THE UNITED STATES
  • CHICAGO SCHOOL – FOCUSED THEIR RESEARCH ON THE NEIGHBORHOODS OF CHICAGO AND ESTABLISHING A PROGRAM OF PLANNED SOCIAL CHANGE.
  • JANE ADDAMS ESTABLISHED HULL HOUSE, A SETTLEMENT HOUSE TO SERVE THE POOR IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOOD
sociologists in the united states11
SOCIOLOGISTS IN THEUNITED STATES
  • W.E.B. DU BOIS CREATED THE FIRST SOCIOLOGICAL LABORATORY AT ATLANTA UNIVERSITY IN 1897 TO SERVE THE POOR AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITY IN THAT AREA.
sociologists in the united states12
SOCIOLOGISTS IN THEUNITED STATES
  • C.W. MILLS, IN HIS BOOK,

“THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION,” HE CHALLENGED SOCIOLOGISTS TO EXAMINE THE LINK BETWEEN PERSONAL PROBLEMS AND SOCIAL ISSUES AND TO DEVELOP NEW SOCIAL FORMS TO ALLEVIATE INDIVIDUAL PROBLEMS.

applied sociology sociological practice
APPLIED SOCIOLOGY &SOCIOLOGICAL PRACTICE
  • APPLICATION OF SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY AND RESEARCH TO CREATE SOCIAL CHANGE AT THE:
  • MICRO LEVEL: PROGRAMS DEVELOPED TO AFFECT INDIVIDUALS IN COMMUNITIES.
  • MACRO LEVEL: PROGRAMS DESIGNED TO AFFECT SOCIAL POLICY
social entrepreneurs
SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS
  • IDENTIFIES AND SOLVES SOCIAL PROBLEMS.
  • ACT AS CHANGE AGENTS FOR SOCIETY.
  • DEVELOPS SOLUTIONS THAT CREATE SOCIAL VALUE.
  • EXAMPLE: MUHAMMAD YUNUS

GRAMEEN BANK IN BANGLADESH

grameen bank micro finance program
GRAMEEN BANKMICRO-FINANCE PROGRAM
  • BANK THAT MAKES LOANS ONLY TO POOR PEOPLE, MOSTLY WOMEN.
  • STARTED BY ONE MAN GIVING SMALL LOANS TO VILLAGERS.
  • TODAY THE PROGRAM REACHES 12 MILLION HOUSEHOLDS AND HAS 5.5 MILLION BORROWERS AND HAS LENT OVER $5 BILLION.
social entrepreneurs16
SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS
  • THEIR WORK GROWS OUT OF DIRECT CONTACT WITH PEOPLE WHO NEED ASSISTANCE.
  • HISTORICAL TREND: GREAT INCREASE IN SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS SINCE THE 1990s.
social change agent

SOCIAL CHANGE AGENT

KEVIN STUART

QINGHAI NORMAL UNIVERSITY

change agent kevin stuart
CHANGE AGENT :KEVIN STUART
  • INNOVATIVE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM IN THE NATIONALITIES DEPARTMENT IN QINGHAI NORMAL UNIVERSITY
  • ADDRESS THE PROBLEMS OF:
    • LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AMONG ETHNIC MINORITIES BELOW THE NATIONAL AVERAGE.
    • NEED FOR TRAINING IN ENGLISH AS A THIRD LANGUAGE.
dazhuan level english program
DAZHUAN LEVEL ENGLISH PROGRAM
  • RECRUITMENT OF OUTSTANDING STUDENTS FROM MIDDLE SCHOOLS AND TEACHER TRAINING COLLEGES IN GANSU, QINGHAI, SICHUAN, THE TIBETAN REGION OF YUNNAN PROVINCE AND THE TIBET AUTONOMOUS REGION.
  • STUDENTS HAVE 30 HOURS OF INSTRUCTION PER WEEK, 12 – 14 HOURS IN ENGLISH.
  • IN LESS THAN TWO YEARS ARE READING ENGLISH CLASSICS (OLD MAN & THE SEA)
grassroots sustainable development projects
GRASSROOTS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
  • IN ADDITION TO LEARNING ENGLISH, STUDENTS HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN HOW TO DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT SMALL-SCALE GRASSROOTS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS FOR THEIR LOCAL COMMUNITIES.
project development training
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT TRAINING
  • WRITING PROJECT PROPOSALS
  • APPLYING FOR FUNDING FOR PROJECTS
  • MONITORING AND MANAGING PROJECT FINANCES
  • WRITE REPORTS EVALUATING PROJECTS
projects
PROJECTS
  • BUILD VILLAGE SCHOOLS
  • IMPLEMENT WATER PROJECTS
  • PROVIDE SOLAR COOKERS TO RURAL HOUSEHOLDS

IN THE PROCESS OF LEANING ENGLISH,STUDENTS ARE IMPLEMENTING PROJECTS TO BENEFIT THEIR COMMUNITIES.

developmental projects on the tibetan plateau
DEVELOPMENTAL PROJECTS ON THE TIBETAN PLATEAU
  • SOME OF THE PROJECTS CONDUCTED BY STUDENTS IN KEVIN STUART’S CLASS:
    • GREGORY
    • LUKE
    • ZACHARERY
    • KIMBERLY
slide24

XIRE ( GREGORY)

XIREJIANCUO

Comes from a small Tibetan village called Sa dkyil

in Tongren County,

Huangnan

Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture,

Qinghai Province PRC

gregory
Gregory
  • In 1999, he was one of five students chosen to study English at

Qinghai Normal University.

  • While learning English, he also learned about development work and the possibilities for development programs in his home village and nearby communities.
gregory s first project
Gregory’s First Project
  • Mountain God Temple in Sa dkyil village.
  • Gregory secured a $11,000 grant from the Bridge Fund for restoring the temple.
gregory s current project kaji rima primary school project
Gregory’s Current Project:Kaji Rima Primary School Project

Kajia Rima Village, Madpa Townshi

Tongren County,

Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture,

Qinghai Province, PRC

kaji rima primary school project
Kaji Rima Primary School Project
  • Poor and remote village that wants an education for their children.
  • 95 % of villagers are illiterate.
  • Village of twenty-two households.
  • 30 kilometers from Tongren town.
  • Must travel by foot for 4 hours on winding treacherous path to reach the village.
  • Situated on top of a mountain.
kaji rima school project potential benefits
Kaji Rima School Project Potential Benefits:
  • The school will have a room for grades 1-2 and a second room for grade 3.
  • Students will be taught Tibetan, Chinese, and math in Tibetan.
  • Twenty students (males and females) will have an opportunity to receive an education.
  • With education, poverty will be reduced.
german embassy beijing tibetan village irrigation project
GERMAN EMBASSY (BEIJING) TIBETAN VILLAGE IRRIGATION PROJECT
  • ZHURMER NANG VILLAGE, QINGHAI PROVINCE, PRC.
  • CONCRETE-STONE IRRIGATION DITCH.
  • PROBLEMS SOLVED:
    • NO MORE TIME LOST FIXING BROKEN SYSTEM.
    • LARGER CROP YIELDS & MORE INCOME
    • LESS EROSION OF LAND FROM WATER
slide42
LUKE
  • LUKE IS CURRENTLY SEEKING FUNDING FOR SEVEN PROJECTS (SIX RUNNING WATER PROJECTS AND ONE SCHOOL PROJECT).
cultural preservation projects
CULTURAL PRESERVATION PROJECTS
  • STUDENTS ARE ENCOURAGED TO GET INVOLVED IN CULTURAL PRESERVATION PROJECTS:
    • FOLKLORE COLLECTION IN AUDIO AND VIDEO FORMATS.
    • TRANSCRIPTION OF MATERIAL IN TIBETAN WITH IPA(INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET) AND TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH.
for more information
FOR MORE INFORMATION
  • DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS:

http://iris.lib.virginia.edu/tibet/community/commdev.html

ENGLISH PROGRAM:

http://iris.lib.virginia.edu/tibet/education/english/EnglishTrainingForTibetans.pdf

TIBETAN-FRIENDLY ENGLISH TEACHING MATERIAL:

http://iris.lib.virginia.edu/tibet/xml/showEssay.php?xml=/education/english/index.xml&m=print

social change agents

Social Change Agents

SHEM WOMEN’S GROUP

shem women s group
SHEMWomen’s Group
  • Focus on the empowerment of Tibetan women and their communities through grassroots development.
  • Trains young, educated women to design, implement, and manage sustainable grassroots development projects that will address needs for water, fuel, and education in their home communities.
most projects are designed to directly benefit women
Most Projects are Designed to Directly Benefit Women
  • Reason for this focus:
    • Knowledge: As women, Shem members have first hand knowledge of the needs for women in impoverished villages.
    • Women’s Roles: Women’s lives are greatly impacted by limited access to clean water, electricity, health care and education. Projects are designed to provide women with more free time, better health and safer access to water and fuel.
    • Challenging Traditional Attitudes: Shem members serve as positive role models demonstrating the importance of education for women.
how shem got started
HOW “SHEM” GOT STARTED
  • After hours course in Gender Studies taught by Michelle Kleisath – raised student’s awareness about women’s roles.
  • Discussion of gender specific concerns lead to motivation to move forward to help women through small scale development projects.
  • At student’s request. Michelle designed a development skills training class.
grassroots development skills training course
GRASSROOTS DEVELOPMENT SKILLS TRAINING COURSE
  • STUDENTS LEARNED HOW TO:
    • PLAN PROJECTS
    • FIND FUNDING FROM LOCAL, NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES
    • ORGANIZE THE TASKS TO BE COMLETED
    • MANAGE THE PEOPLE AND PROJECT
    • IMPLEMENT AND MONITOR THE PROJECT
    • PROVIDE A FINAL REPORT FOR THE FUNDING AGENCIES
growth of shem
GROWTH OF SHEM
  • SHEM WAS FORMED IN 2005
  • FIRST GROUP TO PROVIDE TIBETAN WOMEN WITH THE OPPORTUNITY TO DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT COMMUNITY PROJECTS.
  • PROJECT DIRECTORS: CHUGPILHAMO & LHAMOTSO.
  • IN THEIR FIRST YEAR OF OPERATION, SHEM RAISED NEARLY $40,000 AND COMPLETED SIX DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN TIBETAN COMMUNITIES.
types of projects conducted by shem
TYPES OF PROJECTS CONDUCTED BY SHEM
  • BRINGING POTABLE WATER TO VILLAGES
  • IMPROVING SCHOOLS
  • IMPROVING VILLAGE INFRASTRUCTURE BY BUILDING BRIDGES
  • SUPPORTING MICRO-FINANCING IN THE FORM OF YAK LOANS
  • BRINGING SOLAR ELECTICITY TO NOMADIC COMMUNITIES
shem tibetan women s group

SHEMTibetan Women’s Group

http://www.shemgroup.org/

ethnic nationalities
Ethnic Nationalities
  • There are 57 National ethnic groups within China.
  • The Han Chinese are the dominant group and comprise the largest group in China.
  • The Tibetans are one of the largest ethnic groups.
what is culture
Culture

the language, beliefs,

values, norms, behaviors, and material objects that are passed from one generation to the next.

Material Culture

the material objects that distinguish a culture.

Non-material Culture – a group’s

way of thinking and doing things.

What is Culture?
how culture affects our lives
How Culture Affects Our Lives
  • The effects of our own culture generally remain imperceptible to us.
  • These learned and shared ways penetrate our being.
  • Culture becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate what is going on around us.
folkways and mores
Folkways – norms that are not strictly enforced.

If someone does not follow a folkway, we may stare or shrug our shoulders.

Mores – norms that are considered essential to our core values.

Folkways and Mores
norms in tibet
Norms in Tibet
  • Clothing – Cover your arms and legs

Especially women “of a certain age.”

  • Do not stretch your legs out.
  • Don’t kiss in public.
  • Do not point to images of deities with index finger. Use the entire hand.
  • Take off your shoes when sitting on the kang
norms in tibet64
Norms In Tibet
  • Go outside to blow your nose.
  • Gesture of respect – hands together in prayer form and bow (to elders).
  • Gestures:

Thumb up – good

Little finger up – bad

Middle finger up – so, so

cultural diffusion
Cultural Diffusion
  • The spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another.
  • Travel and communication unite us,
home and courtyard

Home and Courtyard

Women’s Work

cultural orientations
Culture Shock – the

Disorientation that people experience when they come into contact with a different culture.

Ethnocentrism – the tendency to use one’s own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other societies.

It can create in-group loyalties or lead to harmful discrimination.

Cultural Orientations
practicing cultural relativism
Practicing Cultural Relativism
  • Try to see any item or practice in terms of the culture it occurs in.
  • Analyze another culture on its own terms.
  • Analyze how the elements of culture fit together.
  • To counter our tendency to use our own culture as a tool for judgement.