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These PowerPoint slides have been designed for use by students and instructors using the Anthropology: The Exploration of Human Diversity textbook by Conrad Kottak. These files contain short outlines of the content of the chapters, as well as selected photographs, maps, and tables. Students may find these outlines useful as a study guide or a tool for review. Instructors may find these files useful as a basis for building their own lecture slides or as handouts. Both audiences will notice that many of the slides contain more text than one would use in a typical oral presentation, but it was felt that it would be better to err on the side of a more complete outline in order to accomplish the goals above. Both audiences should feel free to edit, delete, rearrange, and rework these files to build the best personalized outline, review, lecture, or handout for their needs.
This chapter introduces students to the variety of economic systems that are present in human societies. It especially focuses on the distinctions between foraging, horticulture, agriculture, and pastoralism, and on models of distribution and exchange.
C h a p
Also Known As
Mobility, use of nature's resources
Slash-and-burn, shifting cultivation, swiddening, dry farming
Continuous use of land, intensive use of labor
Nomadism and transhumance
Factory production, capitalism, socialist productionAdaptive Strategies
Yehudi Cohen’s Adaptive Strategies:
A contemporary forager from Australia’s Cape York peninsula collects eggs from the nest of a magpie goose.
Photo Credit: Thand Samuels Abell II/ National Geographic Society
Worldwide distribution of recent hunter-gatherers.
Source: Gäran Burenhult, ed., People of the Stone Age: Hunters and Gatherers and Early Farmers (San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1993).
This man in Ranomafana, Madagascar, is practicing slash-and-burn horticulture.
Photo Credit: Paul Harrison/Still Pictures/ Peter Arnold, Inc.
Irrigated and terraced rice fields used by the rice farmers of Luzon in the Philippines.
Photo Credit: Paul Chesley/Tony Stone Images
A female pastoralist who is a member of the Kirgiz ethnic group in Xinjiang Province, China.
Photo Credit: Image Bank
These workers in Yunnan Province, China, strive for an equal distribution of meat.
Photo Credit: John Eastcott/Yva Momatiuk/ Woodfin Camp & Assoc.
Map of Native American Tribes of the Northwest Coast.