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1. Bio-Statistic KUEU 3146 & KBEB 3153Bio-Statistic Prof Madya Dr W Mohd Azhar Wan Ibrahim wmohdazhar@perdana.um.edu.my

2. Bio-Statistic KUEU 3146 • Group Project (20%) • A group of 3 or 4 students. • Written report (15)%) • Group presentation (5%) Tutorials/Class assignments (20%) Semester Test (10%) Final Examination (50%)

3. What is Statistics • Recorded data which is grouped under specific variables such as age, weight, height etc • To denote characteristics calculated for set of data. Example: Mean, Standard deviation, correlation Coefficient • Statistical methodology and theory Statistics is a techniques and procedures dealing with the data collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation of information that can be stated numerically.

4. Two Kinds of Statistics Descriptive Statistics • Methods for organizing and summarizing information. • Example: Construction of Graphs, charts, tables ets • Calculation of average, std deviation, percentiles etc Inferential Statistics • Use information obtained from a sample to say something about entire population (reaching conclusions from incomplete information). • Population: Collection of all individuals under consideration in a statistical study. • Sample: Part of the population from which information is obtained.

5. Sources of Data • Surveys and Experiments. • Retrospective Studies (Case-Control Studies. • Prospective Studies (Cohort Studies).

6. Data Sampling • Random Sampling. • Systematic Sampling. • Stratified Sampling. • Cluster Sampling.

7. Variables and its Data Quantitative Variables • Variables (like weight, height, no of siblings, no of household etc) that yield numerical information. • Further can be Classified into Discrete and Continuous Variables Qualitative Variables. • Variables (such as gender, hair colour, marital status etc) that yield nonnumeric information.

8. Class Assignment • Find an article in any journal that uses data or statistics and answer the following questions. Make a copy of the article to turn in with your assignment. • Were the data obtained from a survey or an experiment? • Is the study descriptive or inferential? • What research question was the author trying to answer? • How did the author/s select the case. What population do the cases represent? • Was there a control group? How were the control subjects selected? • Are possible any source of bias? • What is the conclusion stated?