Fallout Shelter Management Course. 2009 version. Fallout Shelter Management Course Disclaimer/Waiver of Liability.
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Fallout Shelter Management Course 2009 version
Fallout Shelter Management CourseDisclaimer/Waiver of Liability The use of or adaptation of any materials or any presentation techniques by any entity and/or individual signifies that the user and/or adaptor understands the inherent risks involved and further assumes any and all liability that may result. The City of Huntsville, Alabama, the Madison County Commission, and the Huntsville-Madison County Emergency Management Agency express that reasonable care and good faith were exercised in development of the materials and presentation techniques; nevertheless, use of these materials or presentation techniques is at the sole risk and liability of the user. The City of Huntsville, Alabama, the Madison County Commission, the Huntsville-Madison County Emergency Management Agency, and the federal government specifically disclaim any and all responsibility or liability for any damages to person or property resulting from the use of these materials or presentations. Materials and presentation techniques include any materials and/or presentations, outline instructions and actions which are generally accepted as typical for recovery from the detonation of a nuclear weapon or dispersal of radiological isotopes. However, the conditions created by such events cannot be foreseen, thus, any entity and/or individual implementing the instruction materials may suffer property damages as well as serious injury up to and including death.
Fallout Shelter Management Course -Parking & building access -Classroom -Refreshments -Restrooms -Schedule: breaks and session lengths -Smoking -Outlines/course materials -Student manuals -Test -Graduation & certificate
Pre-course Survey • Yes No • 1. I want to survive a nuclear attack. ____ ____ • 2. Survival from a nuclear attack is possible. ____ ____ • 3. The Government has made all necessary preparations to protect me . ____ ____ • 4. Protection against nuclear weapon effects is possible. ____ ____ • In a nuclear war, the earth will be destroyed. ____ ____ • In a Fallout Shelter, purposeful leadership is as important as protection • from radiation or food and water. ____ ____ • 7. Combining my skills and resources with those of others will enable us • to survive. ____ ____ • 8. How long will lethal radiation last? 1 week ____ • 1 month ____ • 1 year ____ • forever ____ • How long will it take to regain our present standard of living? 1 week ____ • 1 month ____ • 1 year ____ never ____ • 10. What portion of our population will be alive 1-year after an attack? 75-100% ____ 50-75% ____ 25-50% ____ 0-25% ____
Fallout Shelter Management in the 21st Century This is not refighting the “Cold War” but adapting proven tools to the threat of global terrorism and the spread of nuclear weapons to those who promise to use them if they get them. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), under the Metropolitan Medical Response System (MMRS) established a three-phased program against attack with Biological and Chemical agents and Nuclear/Radiological attack. MMRS requires Madison County to be capable to respond to an attack, postulating a small-yield (10 KT) weapon, and/or a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD; incorrectly called “Dirty Bomb”) that produces: - 7,500 immediate deaths - 25,000 contaminated victims (10,000 acute & 15,000 moderate) - 100,000 displaced persons Having and using Fallout Shelters would minimize these casualties.
Directing People Amid Chaos Every disaster evokes the universal human desire to help victims. This natural desire is transitory - a day or few. The Shelter Manager has this window of opportunity to harness that desire and direct it toward group survival. The Shelter Manager builds the Shelter Management Team by organizing people while they are most willing to help.
1: Nuclear Detonation – 10-Kiloton Improvised Nuclear Device 2: Biological Attack – Aerosol Anthrax 3: Biological Disease Outbreak – Pandemic Influenza 4: Biological Attack – Plague 5: Chemical Attack – Blister Agent 6: Chemical Attack – Toxic Industrial Chemicals 7: Chemical Attack – Nerve Agent 8: Chemical Attack – Chlorine Tank Explosion 9: Natural Disaster – Major Earthquake 10: Natural Disaster – Major Hurricane 11: Radiological Attack – Radiological Dispersal Devices 12: Explosives Attack – Bombing Using Improvised Explosive Devices 13: Biological Attack – Food Contamination 14: Biological Attack – Foreign Animal Disease (Foot and Mouth Disease) 15: Cyber Attack NATIONAL PLANNING SCENARIOS
FEMA/DHS Guidance http://www.ready.gov/america/beinformed/nuclear.html http://www.fema.gov/hazard/terrorism/nuclear/nu_before.shtm
Fallout Shelter Management Course Objectives Upon completion of the course, you will be able to: 1. Know what a Fallout Shelter is and how it protects people. 2. Know how the Fallout Shelter Manager would operate within the Huntsville-Madison County Shelter System. 3. List the three principles of radiation protection and how they are embodied in a Fallout Shelter. 4. Know how to create a shelter staff and organize the shelter population. 5. Operate a Fallout Shelter during the three phases of shelter life. 6. Know the importance of an orderly preparation for life in the post- attack recovery period. 7. Describe the emergency, expedient plans for stocking, equipping and upgrading the protection of Fallout Shelters.
Proactive Anticipate Encouraging Adaptable Decisive Resilient Exemplary Enduring Quick and, Prevail! You (Fallout Shelter Manager) must be:
1. Fill the shelter rapidly and orderly to capacity. 2. Protect the shelter against weapons effects. 3. Satisfy basic human needs: Air; Water; Sanitation & Hygiene; Sleep; Food; Psychological and Medical support. 4. Establish a Shelter Organization and Schedule to carry out all activities. 5. Maintain order and uphold the highest social standard of society. 6. Train the shelter population for post-attack living. 7. Keep morale high. 8. Prepare for in-shelter emergencies. 9. Prepare for both temporary and permanent shelter exit. Duties of the Fallout Shelter Manager
Introduction .5 hour Module 1, Why Fallout Shelters? 2.0 hours Module 2, Organizing for Survival 1.5 hours Module 3, Managing Critical Resources 2.5 hours Module 4, Table Top exercise 1.0 hours Test, Course Evaluation & Award of Certificates .5 hours TOTAL 8.0 hours Fallout Shelter Management Course
A nuclear attack may: be only on selected targets such as military bases with offensive weapons. be a single up to a few dozen detonations on specific or random targets. be aimed at communications, the electric power grid, radars and satellites be on armed forces outside the United States, e.g. the far East; the Mid East; Europe; the Balkans; naval forces at sea or air battles. be an act of by a non-state, i.e. a terrorist group such as Al Qaeda. be threatened to bring about a military or political result; to bend the will of the people. involve a detonation (fission/fusion) or release via an RDD or RED. involve nations or armed forces other than the United States. occur all in one attack – or recur over weeks, months, even years. Nuclear Attack in the 21st Century
2009: Russia reserves right to pre-emptive nuclear strikes on US, NATO A Russian security official says Moscow reserves the right to conduct pre-emptive nuclear strikes to safeguard the country against aggression on both a large and a local scale, according to an interview published in the newspaper Izvestia on Wednesday October 14, 2009. Presidential Security Council chief Nikolai Patrushev singled out the U.S. and NATO, saying Moscow's Cold War foes still pose potential threats to Russia despite what he called a global trend toward local conflicts. Patrushev was quoted as saying. "In situations critical to national security, options including a preventative nuclear strike on the aggressor are not excluded." http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=D9BAUJ680&show_article=1&catnum=0
Evacuation Feasible if completed before fallout/contamination arrives. Area would have to be small and time adequate. Detonation effects (blast/thermal/EMP) may impede evacuation. Evacuees may be exposed and/or contaminated. Shelter In Place Critical facilities that can not evacuate, e.g., hospitals, must continue to operate. Necessary if fallout/contamination will arrive before evacuation complete Fallout Shelters needed to protect against high level radiation/detonation. Shelter-in-place (not necessarily Fallout Shelter) near RDD/very low level. Shelter stay would range from a few days to 2 weeks. Authorities outside affected area can organize rescue/evacuation effort. Shelterees may be exposed and/or contaminated. Protective Options
Evacuation Feasible only if all staff and patients/clients can evacuate before fallout/contamination arrives and operations transferred to an alternate facility. Shelter In Place Necessary if operations can not be transferred or if staff & clients can not evacuate. Necessary if needed to support operations of other response agencies. Must have Radiological Monitoring & Exposure Control capabilities Critical Facilities may be used to shelter families of the staff. Critical Facilities will not be used to shelter the general public. Protective Options: Critical Facilities
Module 1 Why Public Fallout Shelters? Fallout Shelter Management Course
The Fallout Shelter is the core of the Madison County Population Protection Program. The mission of the Fallout Shelter Manager: Protect the lives of as many people as possible and assist them to enter the post-attack world well enough in mind and body to begin reconstruction of society. Within the Fallout Shelter, the Shelter Manager works as an extension of city or county government. Fallout Shelter System
The Code of Alabama 1975, Section 31-9-16, Title 31 Military Affairs and Civil Defense. Immunity of state, etc., from liability for torts resulting from emergency management activities; exemptions of emergency management workers from license requirements; powers, duties, etc., of emergency management workers. (a) All functions under this chapter and all other activities relating to emergency management are hereby declared to be governmental functions. (b) Neither the state nor any political subdivision thereof nor other agencies of the state or political subdivisions thereof, nor, except in cases of willful misconduct, gross negligence or bad faith, any emergency management worker, individual, partnership, association or corporation complying with or reasonably attempting to comply with this chapter or any order, rule or regulation promulgated pursuant to the provisions of this chapter or pursuant to any ordinance relating to blackout or other precautionary measures enacted by any political subdivision of the state, shall be liable for the death of or injury to persons, or for damage to property, as a result of any such activity.The provisions of this section shall not affect the right of any person to receive benefits to which he would otherwise be entitled under this chapter or under the Worker's Compensation Law or under any pension law, nor the right of any such person to receive any benefits or compensation under any act of Congress. (c) Any requirement for a license to practice any professional, mechanical or other skill shall not apply to any authorized emergency management worker who shall, in the course of performing his duties as such, practice such professional, mechanical or other skill during an emergency management emergency. (d) As used in this section, the term "emergency management worker" shall include any full-or part-time paid, volunteer or auxiliary employee of this state, or other states, territories, possessions or the District of Columbia, of the federal government, of any neighboring county or of any political subdivision thereof, or of any agency or organization performing emergency management services at any place in this state subject to the order or control of, or pursuant to, a request of, the state government or any political subdivision thereof. (e) Any emergency management worker, as defined in this section, performing emergency management services at any place in this state pursuant to agreements, compacts or arrangements for mutual aid and assistance to which the state or a political subdivision thereof is a party, shall possess the same powers, duties, immunities and privileges he would ordinarily possess if performing his duties in the state, province or political subdivision thereof in which normally employed or rendering services. (Acts 1955, No. 47, p. 267, §16.) Immunity from Liability
Madison Co population is ~270,000. Up to 15% may spontaneously evacuate. Madison Co. has more than 150 federally surveyed and approved Public Fallout Shelters. Total capacity is 263,000+ persons. Huntsville has reserved a few Fallout Shelters for use in Direction and Control, Medical and Recovery operations. Some are privately owned. A number of unsurveyed but potential shelters exist that could augment existing federally surveyed and approved Fallout Shelters. Redstone Arsenal & Marshall Space Flight Center have a number of federally surveyed & approved Fallout Shelters for their use. 100s of privately owned Tornado/Fallout shelters exist – not in system 1000s of boats can anchor along TN River if 200’ from shore in 3’ deep water Fallout Shelter Profile
Fallout Shelters protect against radiation based on the size, mass and location or site of the building and its surroundings. Fallout Shelters are not intended to protect against other (blast, heat) effects of a nuclear detonation, explosions or Chemical & Biological Agents. Such a capability may exist in a building due to its size, mass & location. Fallout Shelters are not intended for use after use of a RDD (but may be). Contamination from a RDD can be expected to cover a few up to a few hundred acres with low-level radioactive material; A nuclear detonation may affect large areas (10-100 sq. miles) damaged by direct effects and 100s to 1,000s of sq. miles with radioactive fallout. Fallout Shelter Program Overview
The Shelter Manager must: Assume command rapidly Act with authority Delegate authority Organize people into task teams to meet needs Refrain from personal over involvement with shelterees. Establish priorities Set a schedule Be an example of model behavior Recognize the changing needs of the shelterees Keep people informed Motivate people In critical facilities, continue operations, continue the mission. Principles of Leadership
Entry The time from opening until a routine is established. Routine A daily living pattern exists along with training & preparation for post-shelter living Emergence The period from when preparations are complete and it is safe to exit to begin work of reconstruction until people can leave shelter permanently. The Three Phases of Shelter Stay
The Shelter Manager may be faced with life-threatening emergencies and must plan to cope with them. Examples are: Structural damage to the shelter from a nearby detonation. Fire in the shelter. Dangerously high radiation levels. Severely high temperatures and humidity. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide imbalance in the shelter. Depletion of essential supplies. Disease and injury. Unrest, anxiety, crime or defiance of order or authority. Shelter Emergencies
1. Have the Radiological Monitor (RM) locate, by use of monitoring instruments, the best protected areas in the shelter. 2. Keep the people in the shelter until outside radiation rates are low enough to leave safely. Keep the shelter, people and supplies from being contaminated. If no RM or instruments present, use areas with most shielding & distance. The Shelter Manger’s Responsibilities in Radiological Protection
Conventional explosives produce - Heat - Blast/Shock and are measured in tons of explosive force. Radiation Dispersion Device, RDD or “Dirty Bomb” - May use conventional explosive to spread radioisotope - Radioisotopes may be placed or spread without any explosion! - No fission involved – just exposure/contamination. Nuclear explosions produce - Heat - Blast/Shock - Initial Nuclear Radiation - Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and - Residual Nuclear Radiation or Fallout and are measures in Kilotons (1,000s of tons) or Megatons (1,000,000s of tons) of explosive force. Nuclear Vs. Conventional Weapons
Nuclear Weapons produce effects in a time sequence. In order of occurrence and duration, they are: Initial Nuclear Radiation - less than 1 second Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) - first few seconds Heat - few to 90 seconds Blast/Shock - up to 60 seconds Residual Nuclear Radiation or FALLOUT - diminishes very rapidly at first, then slowly over . . . hours, days, weeks, years . . . Weapon Effects
Elements are substances that can not be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. There are 117 elements; each has unique properties. An atom is the simplest unit an element can be divided into and still keeps its unique properties. Atoms which emit ionizing radiation are said to be radioactive. Ionizing radiation produces charged particles, ions, in anything it strikes. It damages molecules in both living cells and inanimate mater. Radiation refers to all sources of energy emissions, such as visible light, radio and sound waves as well as ionizing radiation. Understanding Radiation & Radioactivity
Nuclear or Ionizing Radiation Gamma is the greatest hazard from Fallout
Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Level of Biological Important Radiation Effects Organization Molecular Damage to enzymes, DNA, RNA, etc. and interference to biological pathways Cellular Damage to cell membranes, nucleus, chromosomes, etc. Inhibition of cell division, cell death; transformed to malignant state. Tissues & Damage and disruption to intestinal tract, bone marrow, Organs capillaries, thyroid, central nervous system, etc. Cancers induced. Whole Body Radiation ‘Lifeshortening’ & death. Populations Changes in the genetic characteristics of individuals.
Four measurements used to describe radiation, radiation exposure and the damage it can do to living beings. Activity (quantity) Exposure & Exposure Rate (energy) Absorbed Dose & Absorbed Dose Rate Dose Equivalency & Dose Equivalency Rate Radiation Measurement Terms/Units
Activity (quantity) Term: Curie, Ci Measures decay activity and is expressed as disintegrations per second, DPS or counts per minute, CPM. Alpha & beta radiation rates are typically expressed in CPM 1 Ci = 3.7 billion DPS System International (SI) Term: Becquerel, Bq 1 Bq = 1 DPS Radiation Measurement Terms/Units
Exposure & Exposure Rate (energy) Term: Roentgen, R, R/hr Measures energy of gamma and X-radiation in air. Does not apply to beta or alpha radiation EM instruments calibrated in Roentgen per hour SI Term: Coulomb/Kg, C/Kg/hr Radiation Measurement Terms/Units
Absorbed Dose & Absorbed Dose Rate Term: RAD, RAD/hr (Radiation Absorbed Dose) Measures energy of any radiation in any mater. SI Term: Gray, Gy, Gy/hr 1 Gy = 100 RAD Radiation Measurement Terms/Units
Dose Equivalency & Dose Equivalency Rate Term: REM, REM/hr (Roentgen Equivalent Man) Measures energy of any radiation in people. SI Term: Sievert, Sv, Sv/hr 1 Sv = 100 REM Radiation Measurement Terms/Units
For our purposes, 1 R = 1 RAD = 1 REM 1 R/hr = 1 RAD/hr = 1 REM/hr Available radiation measuring instruments are calibrated in CPM and R/hr. Real Life Radiation Measurement
Isotope: Activity, pCi (Pico curies) 238U, Uranium 26 226Ra, Radium 120 228Ra, Radium 50 210Pb, Lead 600 210Po, Polonium 200 40K, Potassium 130,000 14C , Carbon 87,000 3H, Tritium 27,700 87Rb, Rubidium 29,000 90Sr, Strontium 2,886 Naturally Occurring, Long-lived Radionuclides in the Human Body The total radioactivity in the body is 277,582 pCi. This is 10,270 radioactive decays per second (DPS) and 887,374,138 (887 million) disintegration per day in the body. Each radioactive decay produces radiation. Sources: Radiation Protection (pages 56, 370), Shapiro, 1990, Harvard Press.
Bananas are a good source of potassium, a very important nutrient. All natural potassium contains 0.0117% potassium-40 (40K) which is a radioactive isotope of potassium. A medium size banana contains about 451 mg of potassium. The amount of 40K contained in a banana is 0.0528 mg. This is equivalent to 14 DPS or 0.00037 uCi. The dose equivalent, if a banana is eaten, is about 0.01 mREM. Sometimes, this is called the “banana equivalent dose.” Sources: Food Values of Portion Commonly Used, 16th edition, Bosen and Church. Chart of Nuclide, F. William Walker et al. Natural Radioactivity in a Banana
High Altitude Air Burst Surface Burst Subsurface Bursts Burst Types of Nuclear Detonations As seen 800 miles away in Hawaii.
Types of Nuclear Detonations High altitude air burst surface burst subsurface burst (100,000’+) fireball does fireball touches, fireball does not Not touch craters surface. break surface of Surface ground or water. Not to scale Effects: Heat minimal maximized moderate nil Blast nil maximized moderate nil Shock nil nil moderate maximized EMP maximized moderate moderate minimal INR none nil maximized minimal Fallout nil minimal maximized minimal
Weapon Yield Ground Burst Air Burst *500 KT 4 miles 7 miles 1 MT 5 miles 8 miles 5 MT 8 miles 13 miles Doubling yield does not double the reach. * Average size Russian weapon. The Reach of 500 KT, 1 MT & 5 MT Weapons