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Theodor Herzl . The Birth of a Dream. Visions alone grip the souls of men. And anyone who has no use for them may be an excellent, worthy, sober-minded person, but he will not be a leader of men, and no trace of him will remain.-Theodor Herzl. Theodore Herzl 1860 - 1903.

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Theodor herzl

Theodor Herzl

The Birth of a Dream

Visions alone grip the souls of men. And anyone who has no use for them may be an excellent, worthy, sober-minded person, but he will not be a leader of men, and no trace of him will remain.-Theodor Herzl

Theodore herzl 1860 1903
Theodore Herzl 1860 - 1903

  • Father of modern political Zionism

  • Raised in a wealthy, secular home in Vienna

  • Educated in the spirit of the German-Jewish Enlightenment

  • Received a basic Jewish education, but had little personal connection to Judaism

Early life
Early Life

  • When 18 years old family moved to Vienna

  • 1884 - Doctor of law - University of Vienna.

  • Later a writer, playwright journalist.

  • Paris correspondent of liberal Vienna newspaper, Neue Freie Presse

  • Moved to Paris

  • Convinced that the solution to anti-Semitism was for Jews to blend in with Christian society

Consider this
Consider This

  • Raised in the home of assimilated Jews, Herzl has been compared to Moses, who was raised by Pharaoh's daughter. Why it might be advantageous for a leader to be something of an outsider?

The turning point
The Turning Point

  • As a reporter, Herzl covered the Dreyfus trial.

  • Alfred Dreyfus, an assimilated Jew, was a captain in the French army. He was accused of selling military secrets to the Germans.

  • Despite scanty evidence and no motive, Dreyfus was found guilty and sentenced to life in jail.

The trial continued
The Trial Continued

  • Further investigation demonstrated that another man was guilty, but rather than admit the mistake, the army created more evidence against Dreyfus and refused to release him.

  • 12 years later, and after a second trial again pronounced him guilty, Dreyfus was finally proclaimed innocent.

Consequences of the trial
Consequences of the Trial

  • The trial split French society, some people supporting Dreyfus, others convinced he was guilty.

  • Anti-Semitism in France increased. Jewish stores were looted, Jews beat up.

Genesis of zionism
Genesis of Zionism

  • Shouting Paris mobs - "Death to the Jews".

  • Herzl - only one solution:

  • Mass immigration of Jews to their own land

  • Dreyfus case was the genesis of political Zionism.

Herzl s response
Herzl’s Response

  • “The Dreyfus case contains more than a miscarriage of justice; it contains the wish of the vast majority in France to damn one Jew and through him all Jews….Where? In France, In republican, modern, civilized France, one hundred years after the Declaration of the Rights of Man.”

The plan
The Plan

  • Believes Jews need their own homeland to be safe from Anti-Semitism.

  • 1896 published The Jewish State

  • Called for establishment of independent Jewish nation.

  • Herzl also calls for the establishment of a Zionist Congress

The first zionist congress
The First Zionist Congress

  • A Jewish group of individuals from different European countries.

  • The first Zionist Congress met in Basel, Switzerland in 1897.

  • Goals to create a Jewish home in Palestine.

What did they do
What Did They Do?

  • The Congress agreed to meet annually

  • Established the Jewish National Fund (JNF)

  • Built alliances between Jews from different countries

  • Met with politicians

  • Idea of a Jewish homeland grew in popularity and acceptance.

Uganda 6 th zionist congress
Uganda 6th Zionist Congress

  • 6th Zionist Congress (1903)

  • British offered Herzl Uganda as a possible site for a Jewish homeland

  • Congress divided

  • Some supported idea, others strongly condemned it.

  • Congress established a committee to consider the possibility.

The opposition
The Opposition

  • Jews presented a number of arguments opposing Herzl’s ideas.

    • Assimilated Jews believed that having a Jewish state would cause Christians to view Jews who lived in the diaspora with mistrust.

    • Orthodox Jews claimed that only the messiah could establish a Jewish state.

Still more opposition
Still More Opposition

  • Reform Jews believed Jews had a responsibility to teach ethics and fight anti-semitism in the diaspora.

  • Other Jews argued it was unrealistic to think it would be possible to obtain the political and monetary support necessary

Consider this1
??? Consider This… ???

  • There were several arguments presented against the establishment of a Jewish state. Summarize one of them, describe who supported it, and evaluate its strengths and weaknesses.

Just the beginning
Just the beginning

Herzl continued to fight for a Jewish state until his death in 1904.

  • “At Basel I created the Jewish State. In five years, perhaps, and certainly in fifty, everyone will see it.”

  • The Jewish state was created in 1948, 49 years after the first Zionist Congress