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King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals. Improving student learning using information technologies. Why e-learning?. because it’s ‘cool’ to enhance the quality of teaching to meet the needs of millennials to increase access and flexibility

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why e learning
Why e-learning?
  • because it’s ‘cool’
  • to enhance the quality of teaching
  • to meet the needs of millennials
  • to increase access and flexibility
  • to provide the skills needed in the 21st century
  • to improve cost-effectiveness

What’s your reason?

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

what is e learning bates 2005
What is e-learning?(Bates, 2005)

distributed learning

  • face-to-face

blended learning

lap-top pro-grams

mixed mode (less face-to-face + e-learning)

dis-tance edu-cation

class-room aids

no e-learning

fully e-learning

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

making choices
Making choices

For any course or academic programme:

Where on the continuum of e-learning should this course or programme be?

If blended or hybrid learning, what should be done face-to-face and what done online?

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

deciding on the role of e learning
Deciding on the role of e-learning

e-learning a tool, not a panacea

need to identify where it will bring most benefit

depends on type of students, nature of topic

Taking account of students/topics, need to design course to make best use of e-learning

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

students
Students

Three technology issues regarding students:

• market and demographics

• technology access

• learner ‘psychology’: learning styles, motivation, experience

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

who are the students demographics
Who are the students? Demographics

Who is your target group?

Demographics:

• age

• gender

• location (where do they live; where will they study?)

• part-time/full-time (working or not?)

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

who are the students technology access
Who are the students? Technology access

What technology can they access on campus? When? Line-ups?

What do they own themselves?

Internet access from home?

How ‘literate’ are they in using technology for study purposes

You need this information

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

who are the students learner psychology
Who are the students? Learner ‘psychology’

Dependent or independent learners?

High ability or mixed ability?

Motivation

Preferred learning styles (listeners, talkers, watchers)

Do your students need to be actively engaged to learn?

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

who are the students common learner profiles
Who are the students? Common learner profiles

Novice undergraduates: 18-20; straight from high school; full-time; dependent learners; low ‘subject’ motivation; mainly campus-based; demand high ‘personal contact’; computers as a study aid

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

who are the students common learner profiles1
Who are the students? Common learner profiles

Mature undergraduates: 20-25; working part-time; relatively independent learners; high ‘subject’ motivation; partly campus-based; confident technology users

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

s who are the students common learner profiles
S: Who are the students? Common learner profiles

Mature graduate students: 25 - 40; working full-time; independent learners; high ‘subject’ motivation; mainly distance learners; heavy technology users

Most courses will have a mix of students – how to cater for this diversity? Alternatives

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

prior strategic decisions to be made
Prior strategic decisions to be made

Same students as before or reach out to new students? mandate?

100% face-to-face or blended or fully distant – or all three?

What technologies to use?

Who is to provide the technology for students?

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

knowing your students
Knowing your students

Who is the desired target group?

Describe the current enrolments:

demographics/technology access/learner psychology

Is there a gap? Could technology delivery help?

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

students and the mix of teaching
Students and the mix of teaching

Identify market:

Identify best delivery method:

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

teaching functions
Teaching functions

Link choice of technology to desired learning outcomes

Choose best pedagogical approach to achieve desired outcomes

Two aspects of learning outcomes:

• content

• skills

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

t teaching functions
T: Teaching functions

Content (knowing):

• facts/ideas/principles/relationships/formulae/problems/opinions

• choice of media: what is best way to represent this knowledge?

• e.g. use of colour, graphics, animation

• media excellent for moving between concrete and abstract

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

t teaching functions skills
T: Teaching functions: skills

Skills (doing)

• comprehension/analysis/synthesis/ application/evaluation/critical thinking/collaborative learning/problem-solving

• choice of media: what technologies facilitate the required skills?

e.g. social media for discussion/analysis/group work

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

i interaction
I: Interaction

Four kinds interaction:

• instructor – student(s)

• student – other student(s)

• student – learning materials

• reflection (student with himself)

Interaction = feedback + hypothesis + knowledge construction: ‘deep’ learning

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

i interaction1
I: Interaction

Cultural issues: will students share/collaborate/discuss/challenge instructor?

Technologies vary in the way they facilitate interaction

Design is important: interaction can be ‘built in’ or can ‘evolve’

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

what teaching roles are suitable for online learning
What teaching roles are suitable for online learning?

What is best done online? What face-to-face?

• transmitting information

• collecting data/finding information

• preparation for lab work

• designing experiments

• doing experiments

• discussing best ways to do things

• problem solving…….

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

group work
Group work

Identify course

Identify teaching activities

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

slide23

Meeting the needs of 21st century learners

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

different economies
Different economies

Resource-based: agricultural, mining, fishing: land/sea-based, local

Industrial: manufacturing:urban, factories, hierarchical, economies of scale, specialist skills

Knowledge-based: financial, bio-technology, ICTs, telecoms, entertainment: ‘virtual’, global, networked, multi-skilled

All three economies in parallel

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

meeting the needs of 21 st century learners
Meeting the needs of 21st century learners

Main reason for using technology in teaching:

• to develop the skills needed in a knowledge-based society

• not just IT literacy: embedding use of IT in teaching and learning

• also developing knowledge-based skills

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

skills of knowledge based workers
Skills of knowledge-based workers
  • • problem solving, critical thinking
  • • communication skills
  • • computing/Internet skills
  • • independent learners
  • • entrepreneurial, initiative
  • • flexibility
  • • team-work/networking
  • AS WELL AS subject expertise

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

slide27

How can we use information technologies to develop the skills needed by knowledge workers?

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

slide28

Current proportion of different types of e-learning in North America + Europe

56%

Propor-tion of courses using each type of e-learning

24%

10%

8%

<1%

No tech-

nology

Class-room aids

Lap-tops in class

Hybrid

Fully distance

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

current teaching models
Current teaching models

Learning management systems

Commercial:

• Blackboard (includes WebCT)

• monopoly (patent)

• high licensing fees

Open source

• Moodle, Sakai

• ‘free’ (but operating costs)

Teacher/institutional controlled

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

the transmissive model of teaching
The transmissive model of teaching

Predominant teaching model:

• lectures, seminars, lab classes

Students study by:

• listening in class, reading, discussion

Assessment by:

• tests, essays, lab work

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

current dominant teaching technologies
Current, dominant teaching technologies

• Powerpoint/pdf

• whiteboards/projectors/screens

• lecture capture/clickers

• learning management systems (Blackboard, Moodle)

• computers/wireless on campus

• Internet access on/off campus

transmission of knowledg
Transmission of knowledg

Technology is mainly being used for transmissive model of teaching

Learning management systems:

• instructor posts content (lecture slides, readings, urls), assignments, sets up discussion topics

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

new technologies 2005
New technologies: 2005 -

user-created content: blogs, YouTube

social networking: MySpace/FaceBook

mobile learning: phones, MP3s

virtual worlds: Second Life

emerging publication: wikis, e-Portfolios

multi-player games: Lord of the Rings

simulations: MyPhysicsLab.com

synchronous: Skype, Elluminate

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

what is web 2 0
What is Web 2.0?

Educational implications

• learners have powerful tools

• learners create/add/adapt content

• personal learning environments

• power shift from teachers to learners

• ‘open’ access, content, services

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

how to mobilise web 2 0 in online teaching
How to mobilise Web 2.0 in online teaching

Within programmes:

• group work

• projects and cases

• outside experts and content

• field work

• language teaching

• multimedia assignments/e-portfolios

• ………

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

examples
Examples
  • History (web quests)
  • Business management (geo positioning, Google)
  • Medicine
  • Education (e-portfolios)

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Different students, different educational outcomes
  • New tools give learners power to create and demonstrate knowledge
  • New designs and organization of teaching needed
  • Only limitation: our imagination

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd

slide38

Thank you!

© Tony Bates Associates Ltd