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Soybeans and Fava Beans
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  1. Soybeans and Fava Beans By Brian Fischer

  2. Overview • History of both plants • Their production worldwide and in the U.S. • Uses of both plants

  3. Soybeans • Kingdom Plantae – Plants • Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants • Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants • Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants • Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons • Subclass Rosidae • Order Fabales • Family Fabaceae – pea family • Genus Glycine Willd. – soybean • Species Glycinemax (L.) Merr. – soybean http://plants.usda.gov/

  4. General Info about soybeans • The height of the plant varies from below 20 cm (7.9 in) up to 2 meters (6.6 ft) • Soybeans occur in various sizes, and in many hull or seed coat colors, including black, brown, blue, yellow, green and mottled. • The seed contains about 38% protein, 18% oil, 15% soluble carbohydrates, 15% insoluble carbohydrates, and 14% moisture/ash/other. http://www.nsrl.uiuc.edu/aboutsoy/production02.html http://www.amnh.org/learn/biodiversity_counts/ident_help/Parts_Plants/soybean_seedling.htm#Axillary

  5. Agricultural Origins • North China in the eleventh century B.C. • It is thought that soybean was first introduced into the American Colonies in 1765 as "Chinese vetches" • Soybean has been one of the five main plant foods of China along with rice, wheat, barley and millet. http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/botany/soybean-info.htm http://www.agron.iastate.edu/courses/agron212/Readings/Soy_history.htm

  6. Worldwide Production • In 2007, 216 million tons of soybeans were produced worldwide. The world’s leading soybean producers are the United States (33%), Brazil (27%), Argentina (21%), and China (7%). India and Paraguay are also noteworthy soybean producers. http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/soybeansoilcrops/2007baseline.htm http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/grocery_shopping/crops/19.genetically_modified_soybean.html

  7. Production in the U.S. • The United States is the largest producer of soybeans in the world, averaging a production of 69,682 TMT of beans. The United States is also the world's largest consumer of soybeans, sitting at an average annual consumption of 45,313 TMT. In the importing arena, the United States, on average, imports 132 TMT, which is a relatively insignificant amount. However, the United States exports 24,168 TMT, ranking the U.S. as the world's largest exporter of soybeans. The U.S. also has the highest average ending stock in the world with 6,933 TMT. http://www.spectrumcommodities.com/education/commodity/statistics/soybeans.html

  8. Production in the U.S. continued http://bioweb.sungrant.org/Technical/Biomass+Resources/Agricultural+Resources/Existing+Crops/Soybeans/Default.htm

  9. Soybean as a GM plant • Over half of the world's 2007 soybean crop (58.6%) was genetically modified, a higher percentage than for any other crop. • The first genetically modified soybeans were planted in the United States in 1996. More than ten years later, GM soybeans are planted in nine countries covering more than 60 million hectares. http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/grocery_shopping/crops/19.genetically_modified_soybean.html

  10. Threats to the Soybean Crop • Fungi • Insects (Homoptera: Aphididae) • Weeds http://ddr.nal.usda.gov/bitstream/10113/9372/1/IND43634353.pdf http://www.leopold.iastate.edu/pubs/other/files/SA11.pdf http://agronomyday.cropsci.illinois.edu/2010/tours/b1blight/

  11. George Washington Carver • 1864-1943 Inventor • Among Carver's many inventions were a way of turning soybeans into plastic • Worked with Henry Ford to use soy based products http://www.buzzle.com/articles/george-washington-carvers-inventions.html http://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/george-washington-carver/12004

  12. Other Uses • Livestock feed • Biodiesel • Oil extracted from soybeans is made into shortening, margarine, cooking oil, and salad dressings. • Crayons, Inks, Paints • Hydraulic fluid • Soybeans account for 80 percent or more of the edible fats and oils consumed in the United States. http://www.soyworld.com/ http://www.ncsoy.org/ABOUT-SOYBEANS/Uses-of-Soybeans.aspx

  13. Nutritional Value http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soybean

  14. Fava Beans(Broad Bean) • Kingdom Plantae – Plants • Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants • Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants • Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants • Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons • Subclass Rosidae • Order Fabales • Family Fabaceae – Pea family • Genus Vicia L. – vetch • Species Viciafaba L. – horse bean http://plants.usda.gov

  15. General Info • It is a rigid, erect plant 0.5-1.8 m tall • Flowers 1-2.5 cm long • Fruit is in the pod which can contain 3-8 seeds • Faba bean requires a cool season for best development. Growing seasons should have little or no excessive heat, optimum temperatures for production range from 65-85°F. • Broad beans have a very short season (roughly two weeks.) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicia_faba

  16. Agricultural Origins • Eastern Mediterranean around 6000 B.C. • Like the Soybean they fix nitrogen to the soil • Has many names including Broad Bean, Fava Bean, Field Bean, Bell Bean  or Tic Bean

  17. Worldwide Production  In ancient Rome, they began to be cultivated in order to feed livestock as well as for humans. In recent times, they have become less important as a human food and are mainly grown for animal feed. China is the largest grower today, producing about 60 percent of the world's supply. Europe and North Africa are also centers of broad bean cultivation http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Bean http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Broadbean_Yield.png

  18. Main Uses • Mostly used as livestock feed (Horse bean) • It is a good source of protein (25%) • Can be used to treat Parkinson’s disease http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://lh4.ggpht.com/_hTt7ulSkLpI/R5ypAZTe5TI/AAAAAAAAPqA/9LmOm_VN1Fs/vicia_faba_8.jpg&imgrefurl=http://luirig.altervista.org/schedeit/pz/vicia_faba.htm&usg=__fMp8dyUxey6_nQe8cGemLbkVp-I=&h=500&w=750&sz=67&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=bEqOouXDhRiDMM:&tbnh=163&tbnw=192&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dvicia%2Bfaba%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D513%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=538&vpy=133&dur=1906&hovh=183&hovw=275&tx=107&ty=89&ei=nA0tTZKpG8L58Ab7mI26Cg&oei=nA0tTZKpG8L58Ab7mI26Cg&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0 http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/878593/health_benefits_and_nutrition_of_fava.html

  19. Nutritional Value • High in fiber • High in iron • No cholesterol • Low in sodium and fat http://www.neuroformulas.com/pages/Nutritional-Facts-of-Vicia-Faba.html

  20. Final thoughts… • Productive crops • High nutritional value • Multiple uses for soy • Fava bean old world crop http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iVlkZVAw8Gc