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Red Sea/Dead Sea Hydro Power Project. By: Jason Brown Deepika Sagi TA: Marty Cantzler Professor Gary Swenson. Introduction . Design Options. Design Choice. Analysis. Demo . Conclusion. Red Sea & Dead Sea. Introduction . Design Options. Design Choice. Analysis. Demo . Conclusion.

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red sea dead sea hydro power project

Red Sea/Dead Sea Hydro Power Project

By:

Jason Brown

Deepika Sagi

TA: Marty Cantzler

Professor Gary Swenson

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

red sea dead sea
Red Sea & Dead Sea

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

decline of the dead sea
Decline of the Dead Sea

The water level dropped nearly 10 meters over a 13 year period

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

energy problem
Energy Problem

Electricity production in the region is struggling to keep up with demand

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

overview
Overview
  • Design options
  • Design choices
  • Analysis
  • Demo
  • Conclusion

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

design options
Design Options
  • Ongoing Projects:
    • Red Sea/Dead Sea Peace Conduit
    • Ezekiel’s Project
    • Combination of the two

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

red sea dead sea peace conduit
Red Sea/Dead Sea Peace Conduit

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

red sea dead sea peace conduit8
Red Sea/Dead Sea Peace Conduit
  • 180 km from the Gulf of Eilat to the Dead Sea
    • Much longer distance
  • Combination of pipelines and canals
    • Cheaper than only pipelines

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

ezekiel s project
Ezekiel’s Project

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

ezekiel s project10
Ezekiel’s Project
  • 72 km from Palmahim to the Dead Sea
    • Shorter distance
  • Uses primarily pipelines
    • Very expensive

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

combination of the two
Combination of the two
  • 72 km from Palmahim to the Dead Sea
    • Tunnels with pipelines are necessary due to the topography of the region

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

design options12
Design Options
  • Generation type:
    • Standard Hydro Generation
    • Stored Water
    • Pumped Storage

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

standard hydro generation
Standard Hydro Generation

Water gets transported from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea through use of a standard conduit with water passing over the blades of the turbine.

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

stored water
Stored Water

Use multiple turbines/generators to produce the demanded amount of electricity. Basically, some of the turbines/generators will be shut off at periods of low demand.

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

pumped storage
Pumped Storage

The water is pumped to a high potential energy when energy consumption is low (at night), and then passed through the generators when energy consumption is high (during the day).

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

possible turbines
Possible Turbines
  • Geothermal Turbine
  • Pelton Wheel
  • Francis Turbine
  • Kaplan Turbine

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

design choice
Design Choice:
  • Project type: Combination of the two
    • Use of tunnels and pipelines.
  • Generating type: Pumped Storage
    • Use of pumps to store water during off-peak hours and then use stored water during peak hours.

Tunnel

Pipeline

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

turbine
Turbine
  • Pelton Wheel- is suitable for high head (above 400 meters) applications. Operates when one or more jets of water under extremely high pressure are squirted from nozzles onto buckets on the edge of a circular wheel.

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

analysis
Analysis

Flow Rate

Power Potential

Cost Analysis

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

historic flow rates of the jordan river
Historic Flow Rates of the Jordan River
  • 1930’s -1300 mcm/year
  • 1953- 640 mcm/year
  • 2000- 300 mcm/year

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

equilibrium power
Equilibrium Power
  • P(kW) = Flow Rate (m3/s) * Head (m) * g (m/s2) *1.03 (Salt Water Conversion)
  • P(MW) = Flow Rate (m3/s) * Head (m) * g (m/s2) *1.03 / 1000 (kW/MW)

= 41.22 * 400 * 9.81 *1.03 / 1000

P(MW) = 166.6 MW

  • For a system with 85% efficiency:
  • P(MW) = 166.6 MW * .85 = 141.6 MW

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

refilling the dead sea
Refilling the Dead Sea

1050 km2

30m

700 km2

Volumerect = 1050*106 * 30 = 3.15*1010 m3

Volumetri = (1/2)(1050 - 700)2 *106 *30 = 5.25 *109 m3

Volumefill = 3.15 *1010 - 2(5.25 *109 m3 ) = 21 billion cubic meters

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

slide23

Refill Flow Rate

  • 21 BCM to refill to 1930s level
  • Refill at five times Jordan River flow rate (1930)
    • 5 * 1.3 BCM/year = 6.5 BCM/year = 206.11 m3/sec
  • 3.23 years to refill the Dead Sea to 1930 level

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

slide24

Refill Energy Calculations

  • P(MW) = Flow Rate (m3/s) * Head (m) * g (m/s2) * eff. * 1.03 / 1000 (kW/MW)

= 206.11 * 400 * 9.81 * 0.85 * 1.03 / 1000

P(MW) = 708 MW

  • Yearly Revenue = 708*103 KW * 8760 hr/year * Price of Electricity ($/KWhr)
    • Israel = $403 million @ 6.5 cents per kilowatthour
    • Jordan = $434 million @ 7 cents per kilowatthour

*Note: Electricity prices based on residential prices

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

pipeline sizing
Pipeline Sizing
  • Area (m2) = Flow Rate (m3/s)/Velocity (m/s)
    • Assume minimum velocity of 10 mph = 4.47 m/s
  • Areamax = 206.11 / 4.47
  • Areamax = 46.1 m2
  • Diametermax = 7.66 m
  • Conservative diameter of 10 m

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

construction costs
Construction Costs
  • $8 million: Estimated Design Cost
  • $3 million: Estimated Labor Cost
  • $20,100/meter: Tunneling & Concrete Tunnel
    • Based on a design with 10 m diameter
  • $3888/meter: Pipeline
  • $8333/meter: Canals
  • 36 km of tunnels and 36 km of pipeline
  • Total Cost: $874,568,000

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

summary of cost
Summary of Cost
  • Construction Cost: $874,568,000
  • Revenue in Israel: $403,000,000
  • Revenue in Jordan: $434,000,000
  • Less than 3 years to recover construction costs

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

our demo
Our Demo
  • Turbine
    • Pelton Wheel
  • Water Storage
  • Power Generation
    • Geared Motor

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

pelton wheel
Pelton Wheel

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

power generated
Power Generated
  • Geared Motor
    • 65.5 step down ratio

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

water storage
Water Storage
  • “Red Sea”
  • “Dead Sea”

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

theoretical power
Theoretical Power

P(kW) = flow rate * head * gravity

P(kW) = .0105 * .9664 * 9.81

P(kW) = 0.0995 KW

P = 99.5 W

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

demo results

Trial #

Trial #

Voltage (Volts)

Voltage (Volts)

1

1

4.5

6.4

2

2

6.0

6.3

3

3

5.5

6.3

4

4

5.4

6.6

5

5

5.5

6.3

6

6

5.5

6.5

7

7

5.6

6.4

8

8

5.6

6.4

9

9

5.5

6.5

10

10

5.3

6.5

Demo Results

Water hitting top of the Wheel

Water hitting the side of the Wheel

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

efficiency calculations
Efficiency Calculations

Water hitting top of the Wheel

Water hitting the side of the Wheel

R = 0.83 ohms

V = 5.5 Volts

P(W) = V2/R

P(W) = (5.5)2 / (0.83)

P = 36.45 Watts

Efficiency = 36.45 / 99.5 = 36.6 %

R = 0.83 ohms

V = 6.4 Volts

P(W) = V2/R

P = (6.4)2 / 0.83

P = 49.35 Watts

Efficiency = 49.35 / 99.5 = 49.6%

The optimal amount of power is generated when the water hits the side of the Wheel

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

overview of solution
Overview of Solution

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

benefits hydroelectric power
Benefits Hydroelectric Power
  • Economically efficient.
  • Potent source of irrigation.
  • Environmentally friendly.
  • Rejuvenation of the Dead Sea.
  • Solves political issue over water use

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

demo costs
Demo Costs

LABOR

Number of team members - 2

Dream Salary - $50 per hour

Hours per week - 8

Number of Weeks - 13

Total cost of Labor - 2 * ( $50 / hour * 104 hours * 2.5 ) = $26,000.00

PARTS

Tubing - $19.70

Trash Can - $8.87

Motor - ?

Bicycle Wheel - $0

Total - $28.57

TOTAL COST - $26,028.57

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

why we chose this project
Why we chose this project?
  • Severity of the problem
  • Spans many fields of Engineering
  • Has “Real World” application
  • Power application

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Scott McDonald- Machine Shop
  • Marty Cantzler- Our Favorite TA
  • Professor Swenson- Course Director
  • Professor Krein- Electrical Engineering
  • Professor Ragheb- Nuclear Engineering

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

references
References
  • http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:0JIJ5po51z4J:www.mni.gov.il/english/units/Energy/TheElectricityEconomy.shtml+%22The+average+price+for+electricity+in+1999+was+0.285+Israeli+Shekels/kWh%22&hl=en for israel electricity
  • http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:myvFRfL5uRMJ:www.jordaninvestment.com/6c.htm+electricity+costs+in+jordan&hl=en for Jordan electricity
  • http://www.xe.net/cgi-bin/convert.new conversion
  • http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:ZMArF6wozKEJ:exact-me.org/overview/p4144.htm+dead+sea+volume&hl=en for surface area.. Good graphs

Introduction

Design Options

Design Choice

Analysis

Demo

Conclusion

references41
References
  • http://home.clear.net.nz/pages/coote/pelton.html for pelton wheel
  • http://www.hydro.com.au/education/electricity/waterturbines.html for possible hydro power pictures
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_Sea
  • http://www.american.edu/ted/ice/jordan.htm
  • http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:uv4Oxf05qXAJ:www.jordanembassyus.org/07192002001.htm+cost+of+canals+water+red+sea+dead+sea&hl=en for cost calculations on Pipeline and Canals
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