Italians history. Greek Naples. The foundation of Partenope.
The Monte Echia is the place where arose the Greek polis.The settlementofPartenopeisbuilt on the actual Monte Echia: the city wasfoundedby the Cumans. Partenopewasprotectedby a complete wall, thatsheltred the city nuleusby the coast. , the portwaslocated at the current Town Hall Square and the site tookitsnamefrom the sirenPartenope, whichaccordingtooneof the legendslived in the Sorrento peninsula and, afterhrdeath, wastransportedby marine currents in the placeof the future Neapoli
The new emerging power of Rome, realizing the potentiality of Neapolis and its port, manifested his expansionist aims to subractNeapolis to the influence of Greek , Cumana and Sannita power. Neapolis was conquered in 327 BC by the Romans.
In 79 A.D. Neapoliswasshakenby a violenteruptionofVesuvius. At thattime, the population, notknowing the true nature of the mountain werecompletelytakenbysurprise: in fact, Vesuviushadnotgivenmanyopportunitiestogettoknow, becauseforcenturiesitwas a fullyinactivevolcano, in a quiescent state. Precursorsof the eventsoccurred, suchas the earthquakesof 63 and 64 AD whichdamagedallof the city in the bay. In Neapolisalsocollapsed a part of the outdoor theater. The historianssaythatdurinoneofthissismicevents Nerone wasgivingoneofhis show in the open spacetheater
Beganthe terriblevolcaniceruption. ItwasobservedbyPliny the Elder, whowas in the nearbytownofMisenum. Hisnephew, Pliny the Youngerhanded down to the posterity the terriblechronicle. Afterburying the nearbycitieswithhash and pumice ,hot cloudsmadetheirappearance, Neapoliswasnot hit by the latterbutratherwasdamagedby the earthquake, stormsurges and heavyrainsofash. Pompeii, Herculaneum and StabiaeOplontis and all the villagesclosestto the mountain werecompletelydestroyed
During the Roman period, the city of Naples started to expand in the direction of the natural port and out the wall border . The entire urbanistic plan changed and the Dome zone started to have a residential destination.
Given a period of decline, the Middle Ages are divided into Upper and Lower Middle Ages' s . The high Middle Ages go from the fifth to the tenth century BC . During this period there weredifferent barbarian invasions. The Late Middle Ages start around 1000 BC till 1492 (America discovery) in this long period cities had new life and grew larger. In this period there were several changes as the spread of monasticism, the Crusades, and new productive jobs (bankers and craftsmen).
The Congress of Vienna divided Italy in various states. Soon began the first revolutionary movement for the unification of the Italian State. The riots of 1848 began the path of 'Italian independence which was achieved in 1861 with the unification of Italy thanks to patriots such as Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi, who, with thousands of people, went up Italy from Sicily and reliesed the southern regions from foreign domination .. Garibaldi met in Theano King Victor Emmanuel, who ruled the northern regions and welcame him as king of unified Italy.In1871 Rome became the capital of Italy
With the invasion of Poland by Germany 1settembre1939 the second world war started. On May of the same year Hitler and Mussolini entered into " the pact of steel " with which Italy undertook to support militarily Germany. Italy entered the war in 1940 preparing an attack against France. Germany proved to be very strong while the Italian army was weak. After several battles on several fronts (Greece, Albania) 's Italy abandoned its first allied Germany and Japan. The war ended in 1945 ominously.
Fascism is a political movement born in Italy in March 1919, in Milan. It was founded by Benito Mussolini, as a republican and anticlerical movement, even democratic, but just to get the consensus of the masses.
Withina fewmonthsnewauthoritarianand undemocraticteamsofactionadverseto the Socialistsstartedtotheirhorrible job. Mussolini gained the favor oflandowners and industrialists, theysaw in the future dictator, the man whocouldstem the populardemonstrations and strikes in the factories, and stop the rise of the popularclasses.
In 1921 the fascists got 35 MPs to the Deputy chamber. In October 1922 was organized the march on Rome and the King Victor Emmanuel III relied on Mussolini's new government . In the thirties there was a stabilization of the regime, almost the entire population, willy-nilly, was now framed in fascism. The first measures again racewere published on July 14, 1938 with the "manifesto of the race "and on 14 December 1938 were enacted racial laws. The situation in two years, rushed, the Allies and the partisan forces fighted the fascist army. On July 25, 1943, Mussolini summoned the Grand Council of Fascism and was forced to dismiss. He was arrested and powers were handed over to the king.
Italy is a geographic region of Southern Europe, hilly, bordered to the north and west by the Alps that are the major mountain chain of Italy, and situated between the Iberian Peninsula and the Balkan Peninsula. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea and is bordered by four seas (Mar Ligurian, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ionian Sea and the Adriatic Sea.)
Italy is rich in waterways, the mostimportantriver is the Po, whichcrosses the Po valley and flowsinto the Adriatic Sea with a delta that hasbeendeclared a World Heritage Site UNESCO's. The climate is stronglyinfluenced by the seas that surround almostevery side and whichconstitute a reservoir of beneficialheat and humidity. In factitdetermines, within the temperate zone, a particular temperate climatesaidmediterraneo.
For the Po delta is defined as the hydraulic system of branches through which the river flows into the Adriatic Sea
In Italy there are manyvolcanoes: the best known are Mount Etna, the highestvolcano in Europe, Mount Vesuvius and the Stromboli.
Italy is a member state of the European Union located in Southern Europe with Rome asits capital. Bounded on the north largely from the Alps, Italy is bordered to the west by France, to the north by Switzerland and Austria and to the east by Slovenia. Italian is the officiallanguage and the mostwidelyspoken, are however, recognizedlocallyas a co-official in the followinglanguages: French in Valle d'Aosta, Slovenian in the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia, the German province of Bolzano, Ladinladinofoni in the municipalities of Trentino-Alto Adige. In Italy there are fiveindependentRegions: Valle D’Aosta, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trentino Alto Adige, Sicily, Sardinia. They are the twobiggestislands of Italy too. In total in Italy there are 20 regions.
Campania is the second most populous region in Italy and has the highest population density. It is bordered by Puglia, Molise, Basilicata and Lazio. The region has a long and varied Tyrrhenian coast, and is predominantly mountainous. It is crossed by
the Apennines Campano, LucanoApennines and Antiappennino Romano-Campanian; among the main findings we have the Matese Mountains, the Mountains and the mountains of PicentinisCilento.The region is characterized by two large plains, the Sele and the Volturno, and other flat areas such as agro-Nocerino - Sarnese. The Tyrrhenian major rivers are the Volturno and the Sele there are also two lakes : the Matese and Laceno.
In the gulf of Naples there are also some islands of Volcanic origin: Nisida, Procida, Vivara and Ischia, and the wonderful Island of Capri.The climate is Mediterranean with mild winters. The thermal resources (TeleseAgnano, Castellammare) constitute another touristic appeal for the region. Campania is composed by 'cons 5 provinces: Naples, Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno .Not far from the coast, in the Gulf of Naples, is the Vesuvius, an active volcano particularly interesting for its history and for the frequency of its eruptions. Statistically independent.
The climate in Italy is generally temperate. The seasons are well defined : Winter is generally cold, Spring is wet with sunny days, Summer hot and dry and autumn rainy more rarely rainy. Italy can be divided into three distinct climatic zones:
NORTH: The North-Italy, or the part between the Alps and the Tuscany Appennines has a continental climate
CENTRE: The Centre of Italy, Including approximately Liguria and Lazio with a temperate climate,
SOUTH: The South with the main islands of Sicily and Sardinia , warm and dry climate, with little rainfall and periodic droughts The winter is never too HARD and autumn and spring have an average mild temperature