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Reading Quiz by way of Postcards. Bret Crane EDTECH 503-4172 Instructor: Dr. Ching Reading Quiz. Table of Contents. 3-4: History of ID 5-6: Definition of ID 7-8: Definition of systematic 9-10: Models 11-12: The Gerlach and Ely Model

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Reading Quiz by way of Postcards


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    1. Reading Quiz by way of Postcards Bret Crane EDTECH 503-4172 Instructor: Dr. Ching Reading Quiz

    2. Table of Contents • 3-4: History of ID • 5-6: Definition of ID • 7-8: Definition of systematic • 9-10: Models • 11-12: The Gerlach and Ely Model • 13-14: The Heinich, Molenda, Russell, and Smaldino Model • 15-16: The Morrison, Ross and Kemp Model • 17-18: The Nieveen CASCADE Model • 19-20: The Gentry Model • 21-22: The Dick, Carey and Carey Model • 23-24: Constructivism • 25-26: Empiricism • 27-28: Behaviorism • 29-30: Information Processing Theory • 31-32: Relate ID and Educational Technology • APA references

    3. History of Instructional Design

    4. History of Instructional Design • I chose this image for two reason. The first because of being the nose art from a WWII bomber it shows the history of how ID began in trying to find a more effective way to screen flight applicants so that there would be a higher rate of success of those put through training. Secondly, as the nose art illustrates, without ID your training and educational decisions are really just guess work, but by applying ID principles you are able to make decisions based on observable and measurable data. • http://www.flickr.com/photos/angelskiss31/2148485531/

    5. Definition of Instructional Design

    6. Definition of Instructional Design • I chose a worm dissection for a representation of instructional design. Worms travel through the soil. They input soil and output nutrient rich soil while at the same time aerating the soil to help plants grow. How does it all work? A worm is a worm, it just works. Teaching is often viewed the same way. There is an input of students who need learning, and there is an output of students who have learned and are ready for their next stage of learning, all the will there is a level of synergy that occurs in the learning environment. How does a teacher make it all work? People often dismiss it as that is just what teachers do, some can do it others can’t. This is where Instructional Design comes in to show what works, what doesn’t, and how to make it all work better. • http://www.flickr.com/photos/nscds/4625264406/

    7. Definition of Systematic

    8. Definition of Systematic • As Alton Brown describes in his cookbooks, you have your hardware (utensils and equipment), software (food ingredients broken down into dry goods, wet works, and extras), and your instructions. All of these elements may be adjusted and tampered with to some extent, but there are always rules to abide by to keep you on course. Instructional design is the same in that we have building blocks that we work with to get the product we want, but we need to know how all those elements work so we may make our step by step adjustments to get the results we want. • http://www.flickr.com/photos/dmmaus/128318284/

    9. Why are models useful in Instructional Design?

    10. Why are models useful in Instructional Design? • Models give us a framework in which to build the outcome we want to result from our design. The model give us a starting point without having to reinvent our approach to best practices. • http://www.flickr.com/photos/larfernandoromero/5432858922/

    11. The Gerlach and Ely Model

    12. The Gerlach and Ely Model • This model is immediately set apart from many other models by prioritizing the teacher’s need to consider instructional content first before moving onto other design aspects. The model then focuses on assessing learning behaviors before implementing strategy, group organization, time allocation, space allocation, and resources. The process is completed with evaluation and feedback. Gustafson, K. L., & Branch, R. M. (2002). Survey of Instructional Development Models. (Fourth ed.) (pp. 40) Retrieved from http://edtech.mrooms.org/file.php/249/ID-MODELS_Gustafson-and-Branch.pdf

    13. The Heinich, Molenda, Russell, and Smaldino Model

    14. The Heinich, Molenda, Russell, and Smaldino Model • This model is currently the most widely used model, according to Gustafson & Branch Survey of Instructional Development Models, regarding college text on instructional media and technology. The models focus on instructional media lends itself to instructional design for the 21st century. Gustafson, K. L., & Branch, R. M. (2002). Survey of Instructional Development Models. (Fourth ed.) (pp. 43) Retrieved from http://edtech.mrooms.org/file.php/249/ID-MODELS_Gustafson-and-Branch.pdf

    15. The Morrison, Ross and Kemp Model

    16. The Morrison, Ross and Kemp Model • Instead of focusing on instructional content like the Gerlach and Ely Model, this model begins by focusing on the learner, evaluating the learners needs and structuring instructional development around the learner’s needs, and then continually revising the various elements according to ongoing assessment. Gustafson, K. L., & Branch, R. M. (2002). Survey of Instructional Development Models. (Fourth ed.) (pp. 47) Retrieved from http://edtech.mrooms.org/file.php/249/ID-MODELS_Gustafson-and-Branch.pdf

    17. The Nieveen CASCADE Model

    18. The Nieveen CASCADE Model • This model is a product-oriented model, but is typically associated with educational ID instead of the area of business and industry. The continual use of formative evaluation creates a process that creates ever improving versions of curriculum and resources materials. Gustafson, K. L., & Branch, R. M. (2002). Survey of Instructional Development Models. (Fourth ed.) (pp. 60) Retrieved from http://edtech.mrooms.org/file.php/249/ID-MODELS_Gustafson-and-Branch.pdf

    19. The Gentry Model

    20. The Gentry Model • This systems-oriented model, the Gentry Model, divides the model into two main areas: development components and support components, with communication being a major component in order to all elements of development in line with each other. This focus in turn lends this model in being effective for large-scale systems of instructional development. Gustafson, K. L., & Branch, R. M. (2002). Survey of Instructional Development Models. (Fourth ed.) (pp. 70) Retrieved from http://edtech.mrooms.org/file.php/249/ID-MODELS_Gustafson-and-Branch.pdf

    21. The Dick, Carey and Carey Model

    22. The Dick, Carey and Carey Model • This model sets needs assessment as a priority to identify goals as the first step in the entire process. Much of the overall process is traditional in terms of it drawing from the work of Gagné, and has a wide application business, government, military, and now the use of computers for instruction. Gustafson, K. L., & Branch, R. M. (2002). Survey of Instructional Development Models. (Fourth ed.) (pp. 80) Retrieved from http://edtech.mrooms.org/file.php/249/ID-MODELS_Gustafson-and-Branch.pdf

    23. Constructivism

    24. Constructivism • The ideas of constructivism are based on the understanding that as learners we construct new knowledge by building on previous knowledge and experience. Like Russian nesting dolls, one doll is not a complete story, each doll builds on the next to make up a complete set as each doll continues to enlarge to accommodate the previous state. http://www.flickr.com/photos/xstuntkidx/5545604322/

    25. Empiricism

    26. Empiricism • Empiricism makes the point that as learners we basically start as a blank slate and are molded by the learning we receive through continued experience to reach a level of understanding that is unique to the learner. Like PlayDoh, it starts out as a blob but is shaped by how it is interacted with. http://www.flickr.com/photos/cazohagan/2582422275/

    27. Behaviorism

    28. Behaviorism • Behaviorist focus on aspects of the learner that can be observed, and that it is only those observable aspects that can be accurately studied. The child in the picture may have all kinds of things going on in his head, but it is his actions or the expression of knowledge that are what we may utilize as data for study. http://www.flickr.com/photos/foamcow/34055184/

    29. Information Processing Theory

    30. Information Processing Theory • Informational Processing Theory deals with how we perceive information through our senses, how we use that information in a functional way, and finally how we store that information for later retrieval. Optical illusions are a good example of how different people may perceive information differently depending on their ability to filter information and the learning experience as a whole. http://www.flickr.com/photos/anfal_0/4037377100/

    31. Relate ID and Educational Technology

    32. Relate ID and Educational Technology • Instructional design relates to educational technology in very constructive ways. There is often talk of the art of teaching and how difficult it is to decipher what the process is that is facilitating effective learning. Educational technology in many ways allows us to take the face off the pocket watch and see the inner working and construction. When designing learning instruction through educational technology, so much of the function, process, and resources need to be mapped out explicitly, just like the functional steps of computer language, information and instruction need to be accessible without an instructor being there through the entire process. This affords us to really dissect our process as teachers, because we can’t always rely on our ability to “wing it.” Designing curriculum within the realm of educational technology puts the teacher in the position of really needing the advantages of instructional design, instead of just utilizing it when there is extra time to dedicate to it. http://www.flickr.com/photos/kakafonie/3071891418/

    33. References Gustafson, K. L., & Branch, R. M. (2002). Survey of instructional development models. (Fourth ed.) Retrieved from http://edtech.mrooms.org/file.php/249/ID-MODELS_Gustafson-and-Branch.pdf Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part II: A history of instructional design. ETR&D, 49(2), 57-67. Retrieved from http://edtech.mrooms.org/file.php/249/History-of-ID_Reiser.pdf Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional design. (Third ed.) Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.