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Using a Sewing Machine

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  1. Using a Sewing Machine Fashion and Interior Design Page 455-464

  2. Choosing Needle and Thread • Needle- Holds the upper thread on the machine • Always replace when dull

  3. Choosing Needle and Thread • Types of needles- • Universal or general purpose- sharp • Ballpoint- rounded point for knits/stretch • Stretch- synthetic suede or elastic knits • Leather-wedge- shaped point for heavy fabrics • Twin (double) and hemstitch (wing)- decorative stitching

  4. Choosing Needle and Thread • Needle Sizes- range from 6 (delicate) to 20 (very heavy) • Lower = finer fabric • Higher = heavier • Size 9 or 11- lightweight (chiffon) • Size 14- medium weight (flannel) • Size 16- heavy weight

  5. Choosing Needle and Thread • Thread • Determined by type and weight of fabric • Light weight = fine needle, fine thread (polyester/polyester-cotton blend), and short stitches • Medium weight = medium needle, heavier thread (polyester/polyester-cotton blend: heavy duty), longer stitches • Heavy weight = heavy needle, heavier thread ((polyester/polyester-cotton blend: heavy duty), longer stitches • See figure 4-3

  6. Changing Needles 1. Raise the needle to its highest point using the hand wheel 2. Loosen the thumb screw 3. Remove old needle 4. Insert needle firmly up to the needle clamp 5. Tighten the screw

  7. Preparing the Bobbin • Bobbin- holds the bottom thread • Must be removed from the case to wind

  8. Preparing the Bobbin • Winding the bobbin • 1. Loosen the hand wheel knob to prevent the needle movement • 2. Insert the end of the thread through the hole in the bobbin • 3. Wrap the thread securely around the bobbin several times • 4. Place the bobbin on the bobbin winder • 5. Hold the end of the thread until the bobbin starts winding

  9. Preparing the Bobbin • Wind the bobbin evenly. You may need to guide the thread • Fill about ¾ full

  10. Preparing the Bobbin • Inserting the Bobbin- • Open the slide plate • Insert bobbin into its case • Make sure the bobbin thread unwinds the right direction (refer to manual) • Insert case into machine • Check the bobbin tension

  11. Threading the Machine • General process is same for all machines! • From spool • To thread guide (directs thread to keep it from tangling) • To tension discs • To take-up lever (controls amount of thread) • To more thread guides • To needle

  12. Threading the Machine • Tension Discs- • Always check the tension before you being to thread the take-up lever • If too loose, thread will come out too easy • If too tight, there will be a strong resistance and thread may break • Should be some resistance but not too strong

  13. Threading the Machine • Thread Guides- • If thread guide is on the right, thread needle from the right • If thread guide is on the left, thread needle from the left • Pull at least 3 inches of thread from needle

  14. Threading the Machine • Raising the Bobbin Thread • Hold the thread from the needle in your left hand • With your right hand, turn the hand wheel toward you until the needle brings up the bobbin loop • Catch it and pull both pieces of thread to the back of the machine

  15. Adjusting the Machine • Sewing machines create a lockstitch when needle thread intertwines with the bobbin thread • Adjustments to check- • Stitch • Length of stitch • Tension • Pressure

  16. Adjusting the Machine • Stitch Type • Straight stitch- most common • Other stitches- zigzag, stretch, decorative • Controlled by switch on machine

  17. Adjusting the Machine • Stitch Length • Numbers 6-20 indicate the number of stitches per inch • Numbers 1-5 indicate length of stitch in millimeters (4 means each stitch is 4 millimeters long or about 6 stitches per inch) • Regular stitching- medium length 10-12 stitches per inch (2-2.5 mm) • Machine basting- longest stitch, 6-8 stitches (3-4 mm) • Reinforcement stitching- very short stitches, 15-20 stitches (1-1.5 mm)

  18. Adjusting the Machine • Tension • Balanced stitch- threads lock in the middle • If top thread is flat on top and loops are pulling through- top tension is too tight. Turn tension knob to a lower number • If bottom thread is flat bottom and loops from the top are visible underneath- top tension is too loose. Turn tension knob to a higher number

  19. Adjusting the Machine • Pressure • Presser Foot- Holds fabric against the feed dog (moves the fabric) • If this pressure is off, your fabric will ripple or at the end of your seam, one piece will be longer than the other

  20. Using the Sewing Machine • Guidelines on Stitching • Raise the needle to the highest position and make sure both threads are to the back of the machine • Place fabric under presser foot. Put the bulk of the fabric to the left of you • Position the stitch line directly under the needle • Turn hand wheel to lower the needle into the fabric. Lower presser foot. Add pressure to foot control • When you finish stitching, raise the needle to the highest position, raise presser foot, slide fabric to the back of the machine and clip threads


  22. Using the Sewing Machine • Stitching Straight • Use your hands to guide the material but never pull it through. This is the job of the feed dog not you! • Use the guidelines on the throat or needle plate to keep your stitches straight

  23. Using the Sewing Machine • Stitching Problems- • Rethread the machine • Check the needle • Check the tension • Refer to chart 4-13 page 463

  24. Sewing Machine Accessories • Straight-stitch foot • Zig-Zag foot- wide opening to allow needle to move in the correct motion • Zipper foot- Adjust to right or left so stitch is close to zipper teeth • Buttonhole foot- Marking for measurement of button • Blind stitch-hem foot

  25. Sewing Machine Care • Lint can clog the machine • Unplug machine before cleaning • Oil only if machine requires. After oiling, stitch on scrap fabric to remove excess oil

  26. Computerized Machines • Push button commands • LCD screens • Expensive • Monograms, buttonholes, embroidery, decorative stitches • Has memory to store designs

  27. Things To Remember • Always sew 1st on a scrap piece of fabric • Make sure your pressure foot is down before you begin to sew • Only turn the hand-wheel toward you • Never sew over pins