Why dieting does not work. Ch 6. Metabolism - ch.8. Energy. = capacity to do work ( potential vs. kinetic ) 2 laws of thermodynamics 1) energy can be transformed but not created/destroyed 2) every energy transfer makes the world more unordered ( entropy )
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1) energy can be transformed but not created/destroyed
2) every energy transfer makes the world more unordered (entropy)
ΔG = ΔH - TΔS
H= enthalpy(total energy)
S=change in entropy
In a spontaneous change• The free energy of the system decreases (G 0)• The system becomes more stable• The released free energy can be harnessed to do work
2. feedback inhibition– regulation because the quantity of products stops or enhances the pathway, ex. body temp, or inhibition of isoleucine synthesis
Enzymes are biological catalysts.
Relate the chemical structure of an enzyme to its specificity and catalytic activity.
Design a quantitative experiment to investigate the influence of pH or temperature on the activity of an enzyme.
Describe what information concerning the structure of an enzyme could be inferred from your experiments.
An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme α-amylase. Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of α-amylase solution were placed in a test tube. The test tube was inverted several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25°C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below.
(a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes.
(b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes.
(c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the concentration of α-amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results.
(d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme
Do Figure 8.12, figure 8.16, p. 162 #7 Answers on following slides