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UNIT 3 - FORESTRY. TOPIC 7 – FOREST SUCCESSION . TOPICS RELATED TO SUCCESSION. Why do Forests Change over Time? Human and Natural Disturbances Seasonal Changes Ecological Succession Climax Community Pioneer Species 2 Types of Succession Primary and Secondary

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unit 3 forestry

UNIT 3 - FORESTRY

TOPIC 7 – FOREST SUCCESSION

topics related to succession
TOPICS RELATED TO SUCCESSION
  • Why do Forests Change over Time?
    • Human and Natural Disturbances
  • Seasonal Changes
  • Ecological Succession
    • Climax Community
    • Pioneer Species
  • 2 Types of Succession
    • Primary and Secondary
  • The Role of Fire in Succession
why do forests change over time
Why Do FORESTS CHANGE OVER TIME?
  • Forests may be altered or disturbed over time due to 2 MAJOR FACTORS:
    • HUMAN DISTURBANCES
    • NATURAL DISTURBANCES
human disturbances
HUMAN DISTURBANCES
  • Logging Activities
  • Clearing land (ex: farming, cabins, roads)
  • Pollution (ex: acid rain, air pollution, garbage)
  • Global warming (changes in weather and climate)
  • Ozone Depletion (more sun exposure)
natural disturbances
NATURAL DISTURBANCES
  • Natural climate change
  • Species extinction
  • Volcanic Activity
  • Floods
  • Forest Fires
seasonal changes
SEASONAL CHANGES
  • WHAT ARE THEY?
    • Short-term Changes that Occurs from Year to Year
  • WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES?
    • Losing leaves in fall, build-up of snow in forest in winter, changes in temperature and daylight hours, etc.
forest succession
FOREST SUCCESSION
  • WHAT IS FOREST SUCCESSION?
    • It is the natural series of LONG-TERM ecological changes that occurs in a forest after a significant disruption.
    • Unlike seasonal changes, succession changes a forest so that it is never the same again.
  • There are two stagesto the succession process:
      • PIONEER SPECIES
        • FIRST STAGE
      • CLIMAX COMMUNITY
        • LAST STAGE
pioneering plants1
PIONEERING PLANTS
  • The first organisms to grow in an area which has been disrupted.
  • They require a lot of light and generally short-lived.
  • These pioneers provide nutrients for other organisms to come and form habitats in the area.
  • Examples include:
    • Lichen
    • Grass
    • Moss
    • Raspberries/Blueberries
climax community1
CLIMAX COMMUNITY
  • After undergoing a series of successions over time, the CLIMAX COMMUNITY is formed.
  • They are slow-growing and long-lived.
  • It is the FINAL, STABLE, COMPLEX, and SUSTAINABLE community of dominant organisms in an area.
  • It is the LAST stage of succession.
  • In a boreal forest, these are generally

SOFTWOOD species.

2 types of succession
2 TYPES OF SUCCESSION
  • PRIMARY SUCCESSION
  • SECONDARY SUCCESSION
primary succession2
PRIMARY SUCCESSION
  • This type begins in an area where there is NO SOIL nor PREVIOUS LIFE.
  • Examples of areas:
    • Lava field
    • Sand dune
    • After a glacier
    • After an earthquake
  • Could take 300 y to reach climax community!
secondary succession1
SECONDARY SUCCESSION
  • BEFORE AFTER (2 y)
secondary succession2
SECONDARY SUCCESSION
  • This type occurs in an area that has been cleared of vegetation, but STILL HAS SOIL at the start.
  • Examples of areas:
    • Clear-cut
    • Over-browsing by Animals
    • Insect Damage
    • Forest fire
  • Could take 75 y to reach climax community
fire in forest succesion
FIRE IN FOREST SUCCESION
  • How long does it take for a forest to recover from a fire?
    • 75 Years
  • IT IS natural, especially in boreal forests.
forest fire positive effects
FOREST FIRE POSITIVE EFFECTS
  • IT CREATES REGENERATION OPPORTUNITIES
    • Large areas of land opened up for growth
    • Old unhealthy trees are destroyed
    • Nutrients back to soil
    • Some species (ex: black spruce) need soil to regenerate
    • Creates new habitat
forest fire negative effects
FOREST FIRE NEGATIVE EFFECTS
  • Threatens human communities
  • Could eliminate trees used for harvesting operations
  • Destroy habitat and food sources of some Species
  • Could change the Natural Age/Mix of Forest
unit 3 forestry1

UNIT 3 - FORESTRY

TOPIC 8 – OLD GROWTH FORESTS

outline
OUTLINE
  • DEFINITION and TYPES
  • CHARACTERISTICS
  • IMPORTANCE/VALUE
  • OLD GROWTH FORESTS in NL
what is an old growth forest
What is an old growth forest?
  • Old Growth Forests are not simply “old.”
  • DEFINITION:
    • A Forest that has had NO RECENT HUMAN OR NATURAL DISTURBANCE (such as harvesting, fire, insect damage, wind throw)
    • AKA “Ancient Forest”
two types of old growth forests
Two Types of Old Growth Forests
  • Type One - PRIMARY
    • NOT INFLUENCED OR DAMAGED by humans
two types of old growth forests1
Two types of Old Growth Forests
  • TYPE TWO - SECONDARY
    • DISTURBED by humans
old growth characteristics
OLD GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS
  • OLD TREES
  • MULTIPLE AGE TREES
  • NO SIGNS OF RECENT DISTURBANCE
  • MULTI-LAYERED
  • PRESENCE of SNAGS AND DEADFALLS
old trees
OLD TREES
  • Trees are close to MAXIMUM life expectancy
  • Old trees does not necessarily mean LARGE trees!
  • Often WIDELY spaced.
multiple age trees
MULTIPLE AGE TREES
  • Although old trees are dominant, there is a MIX of trees of different ages.
no recent disturbance
NO RECENT DISTURBANCE
  • The forest has passed through the NATURAL DISTURBANCE PERIOD, which means there has not been a major fire or insect infestation.
multi layered
MULTI-LAYERED
  • Lower LOGS
  • Middle SHRUBS
  • Upper TREES
  • This layering is called STRATIFICATION
snags and deadfalls
Snags and Deadfalls
  • Old growth forests have an abundance of fallen logs, leaning trees, stumps and snags.
  • Standing dead trees are called SNAG.
  • Large logs or bits of wooden debris on the ground are called DEADFALL.
why are old growth forests important
Why are old growth forests important?
  • ECOLOGICAL VALUES
  • ECONOMIC VALUES
  • SOCIAL VALUES
ecological values
ECOLOGICAL VALUES
  • VALUE 1 - Old growth forests are habitat for wildlife.
  • EXAMPLES
      • NL MARTEN
        • Prefer thick, shady old growth forest to hide from predators and easily find prey.
ecological values1
ECOLOGICAL VALUES . . .
  • EXAMPLES . . .
      • SPOTTED OWL
        • Requires snags that are common in old growth forest for nest habitat
        • http://archives.cbc.ca/environment/endangered_species/clips/8982/
      • BOREAL FELT LICHEN
        • Prefers coniferous old growth forest
        • Threatened in NL by logging and air pollution from Holyrood Generating Plant
ecological values2
ECOLOGICAL VALUES . . .
  • VALUE 2 - Old growth forests are CARBON SINKS.
    • They store carbon for long periods of time, keeping this carbon out of the atmosphere.
    • The cutting of these trees increases Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide.
ecological values3
ECOLOGICAL VALUES . . .
  • VALUE 3 – RESEARCH VALUE
    • Old growth forests provide SCIENTIFIC information about the understanding of forest processes that humans have not influenced.
economic values
ECONOMIC VALUES
  • Medicinal and Botanical products
  • Ecotourism
  • Timber-related products
social values
SOCIAL VALUES
  • Old growth forests have AESTHETIC value, where we want to protect nature as it stands without disturbance.
social values1
SOCIAL VALUES . . .
  • Old growth forests have SPIRITUAL value, especially to groups such as First Nations people who have deep and historical attachments to nature.
  • http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-75-679-3926/science_technology/clearcutting/clip11
old growth in nl
OLD GROWTH IN NL
  • Old growth forests in NL are classified as WET BOREAL
  • They are unique because of high MOISTURE levels, and thus very rare FOREST FIRES.
  • They are dominated by CONIFEROUS trees.
  • Trees can range from 100 to 250 years of age.
slide49

FUTURES FROM FORESTS: OLD GROWTH FORESTS

FUTURES FROM FORESTS: FOREST ECOLOGY IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR

Main River: Old Growth balsam fir forest at the base of the Great Northern Peninsula

Main River was depicted on one of five stamps in Canada Post's 1991 Canada's River Heritage series

Map: http://www.aquatic.uoguelph.ca/rivers/main.htm

slide51

FUTURES FROM FORESTS: OLD GROWTH FORESTS

FUTURES FROM FORESTS: FOREST ECOLOGY IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR

Source: Parks and Natural Areas, Department of Environment and Conservation, Canadian Heritage River System

slide52

FUTURES FROM FORESTS: OLD GROWTH FORESTS

FUTURES FROM FORESTS: FOREST ECOLOGY IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR

Source: Parks and Natural Areas, Department of Environment and Conservation; Photos: Lem Mayo, Canadian Heritage River System

main river1
MAIN RIVER
  • GAP REPLACEMENToccurs here
    • INDIVIDUAL OR SMALL GROUPS OF TREES die and leave small openings in the forest canopy
    • This increased SPACE allows small trees to grow and develop, a process known as RELEASE.
    • BALSAM FIR AND BLACK SPRUCE are two trees that “lie in wait” for many decades for the chance to crop up in these openings.
    • As a result, trees may be OLD BUT NOT TALL.
old growth in nl1
OLD GROWTH IN NL
  • MAIN RIVER INDICATOR SPECIES
    • Two species living in NL old growth forests are thought to be INDICATOR SPECIES, species that indicate the OVERALL HEALTH of the ECOSYSTEM THEY OCCUPY
    • The two species are:
      • BLACK-BACKED WOODPECKER
      • NL MARTEN
main river2
MAIN RIVER
  • Much controversy has surrounded Main River, since it is many things to many people:
    • A majestic old growth forest region.
    • A habitat to the at risk NL marten.
    • A unique Canadian Heritage River.
    • A logging ground for CBPPL.
    • A tourist attraction.
    • http://archives.cbc.ca/environment/environmental_protection/clips/3936/
slide56

FUTURES FROM FORESTS: OLD GROWTH FORESTS

FUTURES FROM FORESTS: FOREST ECOLOGY IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR

Source: Parks and Natural Areas, Department of Environment and Conservation; Photos: Canadian Heritage River System