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Diabetes and Risk Factors How to conduct prevalence studies Dhaka, August 1, 2005. A. Samad Shera, TI, SI, FRCP Honorary President, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Director, WHO Collaborating Centre Member, WHO International Expert Advisory Panel on Diabetes

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diabetes and risk factors how to conduct prevalence studies dhaka august 1 2005

Diabetes and Risk FactorsHow to conduct prevalence studiesDhaka, August 1, 2005

A. Samad Shera, TI, SI, FRCP

Honorary President, International Diabetes Federation (IDF)

Director, WHO Collaborating Centre

Member, WHO International Expert Advisory Panel on Diabetes

Member, European Expert Committee on Diabetes in Immigrants to Europe

National Coordinator for Diabetes Control

Secretary General, Diabetic Association of Pakistan

Member Syndicate, Liaquat University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hyderabad - Sindh

the most valuable of all talents is that of never use two words when one will do
The most valuable of all talents is that of never use two words when one will do

Thomas Jefferson

a planning the study
A-PLANNING THE STUDY

A number of steps are required from

the moment of decision to undertake

a study, until the practical preparation

can commence

b preparing the study
B-PREPARING THE STUDY

a)

b)

c) Selecting the survey site: Choose a central survey site , to which a predermined number of subjects are invited each day,

Characteristics of a survey site

1- Indoors or Shamians

2- Adequate waiting -------

3- Simple flow of subjects

4- Privacy for anthropometric measurements.

5- Quiet environment for BP measurement

c preparing for the study
C- PREPARING FOR THE STUDY

a) Obtaining Approval

b) Choosing the team leader

c) Selecting the study site

d) The Pre-Study census

e) Preparing the chosen subjects for the study

f) Team training

g) Quality assurance

d conducting the study
D- CONDUCTING THE STUDY

a) Study Procedures

1) Registration

2) Fasting blood sample

3) Glucose drink

4) Two hour blood sample

b) Anthropometry

c) Questionnaire

d) Blood pressure

Continued

slide8

Continued

e) Final assessment

f) Non response

g) Over response

h) Providing general health care

I) Providing feed back

j) Transport of specimens

e specification of data to be collected
E- SPECIFICATION OF DATA TO BE COLLECTED

a)

  • Collect data related to the topics of immediate interest
  • Resist to collect “opportunistic” data which serve no obvious purpose
slide10
1) Core data: Include basic demographic

information, medical and family history,

lifestyle factors, key physical parameters

(BP,GT,Anthropometry and blood lipids)

2) Optimal data: Addition material which might include dietry habits, genetic markers, evidence of disease complications etc

slide11

b) Specification of study procedure

c) Specification of Laboratory procedures

d) Choice of statistical methods

e) Selecting the most appropriate range

f) Preparing the survey form (example of

our survey form for National Survey)

Continued

slide12

Continued

g) Selecting the survey sample

a) Simple random sampling

b) Multistage sampling

c) Cluster sampling

h) Sample size determination

i) Choosing the team size and

composition

j) Preparing a written protocol

f handling the data
F- HANDLING THE DATA

Data Entry

a) Data entry / editing

b) Data verification

Data Analysis

a) Create variable

b) Run Analysis

c) Create Charts

g prepaing the survey form
G-PREPAING THE SURVEY FORM
  • Examiner enters into appropriate box the numerical code of the correct response
  • Almost all coded responses are to be found at the right hand margin of this form
  • The form only includes key item and is short enough to fit on two sides of a single sheet of paper
h selecting the survey sample
H-SELECTING THE SURVEY SAMPLE
  • Simple Random Sampling: Subjects normally recruited from a list such as recent electoral role. The method is labour intensive
  • Multistage Sampling: The community is first divided into subgroups on the basis of ethnicity, ----------, socio-economical level, age group or sex. Multistage sampling is useful when over sampling under representative groups is required e.g, a minority population or elderly age groups
  • Cluster Sample: Simplest method in Procter
i preparing the report
I- PREPARING THE REPORT

a) Introduction

b) Survey methods

c) Response

d) Results

e) Discussion

f) Conclusions

g) Tables and figures