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Sports Injuries in the Pediatric Athlete: Considerations for the Stars of Tomorrow. Eric D. Parks, MD Watauga Orthopaedics Kingsport, TN. Disclosure Statement of Unapproved/Investigative Use. I, Eric D. Parks, MD,

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Sports Injuries in the Pediatric Athlete: Considerations for the Stars of Tomorrow


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    1. Sports Injuries in the Pediatric Athlete:Considerations for the Stars of Tomorrow Eric D. Parks, MD Watauga OrthopaedicsKingsport, TN

    2. Disclosure Statement of Unapproved/Investigative Use I, Eric D. Parks, MD, DO NOTanticipate discussing the unapproved/investigative use of a commercial product/device during this activity or presentation.

    3. Disclosure Statement of Financial Interest I, Eric D. Parks, MD DO NOThave a financial interest/arrangement or affiliation with one or more organizations that could be perceived as a real or apparent conflict of interest in the context of the subject of this presentation.

    4. Why Exercise? Epidemiology Pressures/Risk factors for injury Overuse Injuries Osteochondroses Knee Pelvis Elbow Shoulder Foot Spondylolysis Stress Fractures Acute Injuries Pediatric Fractures Summary Outline

    5. Why Exercise? • Regular exercise increases self-esteem, and reduces stress/anxiety • Farmer ME. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 • Athletes are less likely to be heavy smokers and use drugs • Kino-Quebec, 2000. Physical Activity: a determinant of health in youth • Escobedo LG. JAMA. 2003 • Athletes are more likely to stay in school • Zill N. Adolescent Time Use, Risky Behavior and Outcomes. 1995 • Learn teamwork, self-discipline, sportsmanship, leadership, and socialization • Cahill BR. Intensive Participation in Children’s Sports. 1993 • Builds self-esteem, confidence, fitness, agility

    6. Childhood ObesityExercise • Current public health guidelines recommend 60min of exercise/day • Strong WB. J Pediatr. 2005 • Physical activity declines significantly during adolescence • Brodersen NH. Br J Sport Med. 2006 • Overweight children perceive themselves to be just as active as their non-overweight contemporaries • Gillis LJ. Clin J Sport Med. 2006 • The energy expended playing active Wii Sports games was not intense enough to contribute to daily recommendations • Graves L. Br J Sports Med. 2008 What fits into your busy schedule better, exercising 1 hour a day or being dead 24 hours a day?

    7. Some Active Kids on Our Hands • ~45 million children/adolescents 6-18 yo participate in organized sports on a yearly basis • 1997- 32 million • 2008- 44 million • 7 million adolescents participate in organized high-school sports on a yearly basis • 4.1 million males • 2.9 million females • National Federation of State High School Associations. 2005

    8. Sports InjuriesEpidemiology • 30-40% of all accidents in children occur during sports • ~2.5 million sports injuries treated annually in ER for patients ≤18 yrs old • Sports/over-exertion leading cause for all injury related visits to PCP • Rate of sports injuries was 2.4 per 1000 exposures • 10-14 year olds at greatest risk • 22% of adolescents experience some sports-related injury • 62% occurred during organized sports • 20% during physical education classes • 18% during non-organized sports

    9. Sports InjuriesEpidemiology • 25-30% occur during organized sports • 40% occur during non-organized sports • Hergenroeder AC. Pediatrics. 1998 • males >> females • males 10-19 y/o • football, basketball & bicycle injuries MC • females 10-19 y/o • basketball, bicycle & gymnastics injuries MC • Backx FJG. Am J Sports Med. 1991

    10. Sports InjuriesFinancial Burden • $588 million in direct expenses • $6.6 billion indirect costs • US Consumers Product Safety Commission. Jan 2006 • Sports are the leading cause of injury and hospital emergency room visits in adolescents • Emery CA. Clin J Sport Med. 2003;13:256-268 • CDC estimates that ½ of all sports injuries in children are preventable

    11. Sports InjuriesEpidemiology • 30-50% of adolescent sports-related injuries are overuse • Watkins J. J Sports Med PhysFitness. 1996;36(1):43-48. • 15% of all adolescent injuries are to the physes and apophyses • Pill SG. J Musculoskeletal Med. 2003;20:434-442

    12. Definitions • Physis • Primary ossification center located at the ends of long bones • Responsible for longitudinal growth • Apophysis • Secondary ossification center located where major tendons attach to bone • Provide shape and contour to growing bone but add no length • Osteochondroses • disorders affecting bone and cartilage together • Osteochondrosis • disease of the ossification centers in children • Apophysitis • irritation of the musculotendinous attachment

    13. The Physis • Cartilage is less resistant to tensile forces than bones, ligaments, and muscle-tendon units • Bones grow faster than muscle-tendon units • Same injury leading to a muscle strain in an adult may result in growth center injuries in adolescents • The “Weak Link”

    14. General Anatomy

    15. Physeal Anatomy • Zone of Growth • Longitudinal growth • Area of greatest concern • Zone of Maturation • Calcification • Replaced by osteoblasts • MC area for fracture • Zone of Transformation • Complete remodeling • Metaphyseal vessel penetration

    16. Impact of Growth on Injury Risk • Injuries tend to be most common during peak growth velocity • Peak height velocity precedes peak flexibility gains • Decreased BMD in the 2-3 yrs preceding peak height velocity

    17. Pathophysiology • Repetitive tensile forces • Stress to the physis • Microtrauma leads to: • Pain • Inflammation • Widening • Avulsion • Microfracturing • Long term complications exist for physeal injuries

    18. Overuse • “When microtrauma occurs to bone, muscle, or tendonious units as a result of repetitive stress with insufficient time to heal.”

    19. Risk Factors for Injury • Intrinsic • ↑ vulnerability to stress in growing skeleton • Inability to detect injury • Skeletal variants • Pes planus, overpronation, patella alta, external tibial torsion

    20. Pressure Training errors Sports camps Year round training Single vs Multi-sport Early specialization Improper technique Weekend tournaments Motivation sources Personal coaches Team vs club sport 10 yr / 10,000 hr rule Evaluation programs Risk Factors for OveruseExtrinsic

    21. The Gradual Progression • Multi-sport athlete • Recent increase in activity • Pain with activity, not with rest, still normal performance • Pain with activity, rest, and decline in performance

    22. Key Points During Evaluation • History and physical exam • Recent change in activity or training • Insidious onset of pain that worsens with activity and improves with rest • Point tenderness with or without swelling • Pain with passive stretch of attached ligament/ muscle-tendon unit • Pain with firing muscle-tendon unit against resistance • Radiographs? • Help to rule out other pathology

    23. TreatmentGeneral Principles • Relative rest • Cross training • Flexibility • Ice • Counter-balance bracing • ?NSAIDS • ORIF with certain avulsions • Resection of retained, non-fused ossicles

    24. Patellofemoral Friction Syndrome • Most common cause of anterior knee pain • Estimated prevalance of 20% • Mean age 14 years • “The Great Imitator” of symptoms • Location and quality of pain • Walking stairs, incline/decline • “Theatre sign”

    25. PFSRisk Factors and Treatment • Muscle imbalances • Flexibility issues • Over-pronation, pes planus • Specific sports • Treat from the hip to the waist • Orthotics, bracing, taping?

    26. Osgood-Schlatter’s Disease (OSD)Tibial Tubercle Apophysitis • Occurs in 20% of young athletes • most common pediatric overuse injury • 20% of OSD is bilateral • Girls 8–13yo • Boys 10-15yo • Aggravated by running, jumping, or other explosive activities • Occasionally aggravated by kneeling or direct trauma

    27. Osgood-Schlatter’s Disease (OSD)Tibial Tubercle Apophysitis • Point tender +/- swelling at tibial tubercle • Pain with quadriceps stretch or contraction, poor quad flexibility • Widened physis or fragmented tibial tubercle on radiographs • Tight quadriceps or hip flexors • Postive Thomas test

    28. Osgood-Schlatter’s DiseaseSequelae

    29. Osgood-Schlatter’s Disease (OSD)Radiographs

    30. Osgood-Schlatter’s Disease (OSD)Pathology • Chronic traction/stress at apophysis • Cartilage swelling • Cortical bone fragmentation • Patellar tendon thickening • Infrapatellar bursitis • Long term- prominent tibial tubercle, intra-tendon ossicles, ? ↑ risk of rupture

    31. Osgood-Schlatter’s Disease (OSD)Risk Factors • Repetitive explosive activities • Recent increase in activities • Tight quadriceps and/or hip flexors • External tibial torsion • Patella alta

    32. Osgood-Schlatter’s Disease (OSD)Treatment • Relative rest • Quadriceps and hip flexor stretching • Ice • NSAIDs • Cho-Pat strap • Knee pads

    33. Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Syndrome (SLR) • Apophysitis at the inferior pole of the patella • 10-12 years old • Most common in running & jumping athletes • Basketball, soccer, gymnastics • “Adolescent Jumper’s Knee” El salto del Colacho- “the devil’s jump”

    34. Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Syndrome (SLR) • Tenderness at the inferior pole of the patella • Pain worsened with explosive activity • Tight quadriceps • Radiographs may reveal fragmentation of the inferior pole and/or calcification at the proximal patella tendon

    35. Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Syndrome (SLR)

    36. Patella Sleeve Fracture

    37. Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Syndrome (SLR) Treatment • Relative rest • Quadriceps stretching • Ice • NSAIDs • Cho-Pat strap

    38. Osteochondritis Dessicans • Avascular necrosis of cartilage bed • May be result of direct trauma vs iatrogenic • MC location- lateral portion of medial femoral condyle • Age 9-18 years old • Consider in adolescent presenting with painless effusion

    39. Osteochondritis DessicansRadiographs • 4 views- AP, lateral, sunrise, and tunnel • MRI for stability

    40. Osteochondritis DessicansTreatment • Treatment will depend on the stability of the lesion • Protected/NWB for 6 weeks • Bracing • Follow up imaging • Unstable- surgical

    41. Sever’s DiseaseCalcaneal Apophysitis • Affects boys and girls equally • Ages 8-13 years • Most common in soccer, basketball, & gymnastics • Repetitive heel impact & traction stress from the achilles tendon • Bilateral in 60% of cases

    42. Sever’s DiseaseCalcaneal Apophysitis • Heel pain worsened with activity • No swelling • Point tender at posterior calcaneus • Pain with medial-lateral compression • Pain with calf stretch or contraction against resistance • Tight heel cord, weak dorsiflexors, subtalar overpronation

    43. Sever’s DiseaseRisk Factors • Repetitive explosive activities • Repetitive trauma • Jumping, landing, cleats, etc. • Recent increase in activities • Tight heel cord • Before/during rapid periods of growth • Beginning of new season

    44. Sever’s DiseaseTreatment • Relative rest • Heel cord stretching • Heel cups • Ice • NSAIDs

    45. Sever’s DiseaseCalcaneal Apophysitis

    46. Pelvic Apophysitis • 10-14 years old • Insidious onset of hip pain or sudden sharp pain • Running, jumping, kicking sports • Point tender • Pain with stretch or contraction of involved muscle • Widening of physis or avulsion of apophysis

    47. Pelvic Apophysitis

    48. Pelvic Apophysitis • Ischial tuberosity 38% • Hamstrings & Adductor • ASIS 32% • Sartorius • AIIS 18% • Rectus Femoris • Lesser trochanter 9% • Iliopsoas • Iliac crest 3% • ITB/Tensor Fascia Latae • Abdominal muscles

    49. ASIS Avulsion FractureSartorius

    50. ASIS Avulsion FractureSartorius