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44-43 BCE: potestas and auctoritas

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  1. 44-43 BCE: potestas and auctoritas Mark Antony1st century BCE Marcus Tullius Cicero1st century BCE Octavian30s BCE

  2. The iconography of the young conqueror Alexander of Macedon1st c. BCE Roman copy of a 4th c. BCE bronze Octavian30s BCE

  3. Their conquests: Augustus’ empire, 14 CE Alexander’s empire, 323 BCE orbis terrarum:“circle of the lands” ἡ οἰκουμένη:“the inhabited world”

  4. Ara Pacis Augustae, “Altar of Augustan Peace” 13-9 BCE Commemoration of Augustus’ conquests over Spain and Gaul in 13, and the pax Augusta in 9

  5. Prima Porta Augustusafter 20 BCE Commemoration of Augustus’ receipt of the legionary standards from the Parthians in 20

  6. Gemma Augustea, “Augustan Cameo” ca. ’10s-’20s CE Commemoration (lower scene) of raising standards after unspecified conquest over northern tribes (Germans?)

  7. Augustus as Vindex Libertatis, 28 BCE Obverse: Imp(erator) Caesar divi f(ilius) co(n)s(ul VIlibertatis r(ei) p(ublicae) vindex “Emperor Caesar, son of the divine (Caesar), consul for the 6th time (28 BCE), redeemer of the freedom of the res publica” Reverse: Pax (Peace) personified

  8. Augustus in 28 BCE Reverse: Leges et iura p(opulo) R(omano) restituit“He restored to the Roman people their laws and rights” Obverse (not shown): Imp(erator) Caesar divi f(ilius) co(n)s(ul) VICommander Caesar, son of the Deified, consul for the 6th time(Caesar’s bust depicted wearing a laurel wreath)

  9. Augustus and the “Shield of Virtue,” 19 BCE Obverse: Caesar AugustusReverse: S(enatus) P(opulus) q(ue) R(omanus) cl(ipeum) v(irtutis)“The Senate and the Roman people [dedicated] the shield of virtue

  10. “Shield of Virtue,” 27 BCE, from Arles SenatusPopulusque RomanusImp(eratori) Caesari divi f(ilio) AugustoCo(n)s(ul) VII dedit clupeumvirtutis clementiaeiustitiae pietatis ergadeos patriamque The Senateand the Roman peopleto Commander Caesar Augustus, son of the Divine,in his 6th consulship (26 BCE, gave the shield of virtue,clemency, justice, pietyfor his actionstowards the gods and the fatherland

  11. Livy ab urbe condita,praefatio 9:a res publica founded in morality “… to demonstrate ‘what the mores were and by what kind of men and by what practices both in domestic politics and war Rome’s imperium was brought forth and increased … until the dark dawning of our modern day when we can suffer neither our vices nor their remedies’ “ (Galinsky, Augustan Culture, 59)

  12. Fragment of fresco, Tomb of the Fabii, Esquiline Hill, 3rd c. BCE The conscious display of fides

  13. Libertas personifiedIdes of March and the pileus, 43-42 BCE Obverse ReverseMarcus Iunius Brutus, pileus (cap of freedom),descendant of the founder daggers of the assassinationof the res publica andeid(ibus) Mar(tis)Caesar’s assassin “Ides of March”

  14. Boscoreale cups, ca. 12-14 CE Augustus on curule chair, holding globe, followed by Mars and seven provinces personified, turning towards Venus, who holds Victoria and is followed by Roma and the Genius Populi Romani (Roman people personified) Boscoreale cups, ca. 12-14 CE Augustus as imperator, on military commander’s stool, extending his hand to barbarians and their children

  15. First Book of the First Decad The Histories From the Foundation of the Cityby Titus Livius of PataviumParis, 1543