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Good Morning !!!. NVC Imperialism in China: “The Century of Humiliation” Essential Question : How did the Chinese react to European, Japanese, and American Imperialism?. The Chinese Empire. Qing Dynasty: ruling dynasty of Chinese Empire since 1600 1790s Europe seeks trade with China

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good morning
Good Morning!!!
  • NVC
  • Imperialism in China: “The Century of Humiliation”

Essential Question: How did the Chinese react to European, Japanese, and American Imperialism?

the chinese empire
The Chinese Empire
  • Qing Dynasty: ruling dynasty of Chinese Empire since 1600
  • 1790s Europe seeks trade with China
    • Industrial Revolution = need new markets!
  • China self-sufficient
    • Does not need “strange objects” from Europe
opium trade
Opium Trade
  • 1830s Britain starts trading Opium to China
    • Opium: an addictive drug
    • c.1835 12 million Chinese addicted
  • China outraged
    • “By what right do British merchants use the poisonous drug to injure the Chinese people? I have heard that the smoking of opium is very strictly forbidden by your country. Since it is not permitted to do harm in your country, then even less should you let it be passed on to the harm of other countries”—Qing Emperor
the opium wars
The Opium Wars
  • Opium Wars (1839): war starts when Britain refuses to stop sending opium to China
    • British navy more advanced and better trained
    • 1842 Britain wins war
  • Treaty of Nanjing (1842)
    • extraterritorial rights: British people do not have to follow Chinese laws
    • First of the three “Unequal Treaties” with Europe
growing internal problems
Growing Internal Problems
  • Qing Dynasty seen as weak
  • Growing population leads to famine
  • Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)
    • led by Hong Xiuquan
      • Proclaims himself the MESSIAH and younger brother of JESUS CHRIST
    • Desires to set up “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” free from the “foreign devils and Qing traitors”
    • 1864 rebellion defeated by Qing, British, and French troops
    • 20+ Million Chinese die
foreign influence grows
Foreign Influence Grows
  • Qing government incredibly weak after Taiping Rebellion
    • Dowager Empress resists modernization
  • Imperialist nations step in
    • Sino-French War (1885)
    • Sino-Japanese War (1895)
    • Gain Spheres of Influence: occupied land France, Japan, Britain, etc control
china open for business
China “open” for business
  • 1899 U.S. afraid Europe will divide China into colonies
    • Open Door Policy: all nations have free and equal access to China
    • China not a colony, but completely dominated by foreign powers
rise of chinese nationalism
Rise of Chinese Nationalism
  • 1898 Chinese frustrated and Qing Dynasty doing nothing to reform
  • Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists
    • Poor peasants and workers angry at Europeans and foreign influence
    • Called “Boxers” by Europeans
  • Boxer Rebellion: 1900 Boxers attack Beijing
    • Rebellion crushed by Europeans
    • Boxers viewed as martyrs by Chinese
beginning of reforms
Beginning of Reforms
  • Sun Yat-sen: “The Father of the Nation”
    • Chinese Nationalist revolutionary
    • “Three Principles of the People”: Nationalism, Democracy, and the people’s livelihood
    • 1911 revolution overthrows Qing Dynasty  Republic of China created