François Vase Potter: Ergotimos Painter: Kleitias 570 BC By Beyoncè & Nicki Minaj
Attribution Details • It is 66cm tall • Diameter of mouth is 57 cm • Both the potter (Ergotimos) and the painter (Kleitias) signed their names around the centre chief frieze “Ergotimos/Kleitias made/painted me”
The Shape • Shape derived from a Column Krater, but the handles are high and flat with flanged edges (volutes) • Handles join vase from the third band of the body to the top of rim • Used for mixing wine and water at symposiums - The belly is big and round, with a wide neck, therefore allowing room to dip your Oinichoe in to retrieve your drink (much like a punch bowl)
Winged Gorgon • On the inside of the handles a winged gorgon was painted • A gorgon was often painted on vases used to mix and serve wine, as well as on the bottoms of wine cups
SIDE A 1. Calydonian Boar Hunt 2. Funeral Games of Patroclus 3. Marriage of Peleus to Thetis 4. Pursuit of Troilus 5. Griffons 6. Decorative rays 7. Battle of Pygmies & Cranes
Calydonian Boar Hunt • King Oeneus of Calydon had insulted Artemis by not sacrificing to her. Artemis sent the boar to destroy Calydon. It rampaged throughout the countryside, destroying the vineyards and crops, forcing people to take refuge inside city walls, where they began to starve. Meleager was sent to gather a band of heroes to hunt the boar, among them were Peleus and Atalanta. • Atalanta – painted with white skin • Peleus – Shown beardless to suggest his youth
Funeral Games of Patroclus Patroclus and Achilles were best friends. During the Trojan War, Achilles and Argamemnonhad an argument. Archilles then refused to help the Greeks fight. Patroclus wanted to fight, so he secretly borrowed Achilles’ armour and went out to fight. During the battle, he was killed and the grief-stricken Achilles held magnificent funeral games in his honour • Thematically connected to a scene painted under each handle, which shows Ajax carrying the dead body of Achilles, soon after the death of Patroclus
Funeral Games of Patroclus • Between the horses legs, is a three legged bowl called a tripod • A prize given to the victors of the games • Also used to fill the void between the horses feet • Narrative technique: • Show of direction – Achilles and horses are all going in the same direction which gives the idea of a procession. • Movement – the horses’ front legs are lifted in mid-air, indicating forward movement.
Side A & B, Third Band (around whole vase) 3. Marriage of Peleus to Thetis
Marriage of Peleus to Thetis • Probably the most significant of the myths. This scene runs around the centre of the vase, showing the gods visiting the newlyweds. The myth is that both Zeus and Poseidon wanted to marry Thetis, but they heard a prophecy that the son of Thetis would overthrow his father, so they wed her to a mortal – Peleus. Their son was Achilles.
Marriage of Peleus to Thetis • Dionysus is shown in this scene. We know this because • He is carrying a wine jug • The vine branch above his head • The 3 female figures to his left which were the personified seasons • It is fitting that he is shown here because he is the god of celebrations NB. The flesh of the females on the François vase are painted in white, whereas the Lydos’ were in black.
Side A & B, Fourth Band (around whole vase) 4. Pursuit of Troilus by Achilles
Pursuit of Troilus by Achilles Achilles is seen in several scenes on this vase, although this is the most significant that he is shown in. Troilus was the son of King Priam, and it was prophesised that Troy would not fall if he reached his 20th birthday. Achilles was urged to kill Troilus by Athena, and was guarded by Hermes. He waited by the fountain house to catch Troilus, who fled away on horseback, but Achilles still managed to slaughter him at the altar of Apollo.
Pursuit of Troilus by Achilles • This scene is thematically connected to the Funeral Game of Patroclus • Seated figure is King Priam (father of Troilus) who is old – bearded with long hair - holding a staff Narrative techniques: • Youth collects water from the fountain house • Troilus is riding a horse and only part of Achilles is shown • Brothers, Hector and Polites, prepare to go out and help Troilus, can be seen leaving through the door.
SIDE B 1. Theseus – liberation dance 2. Battle: Centaurs and Lapiths 3. Marriage of Peleus and Thetis 4. Return of Hephaistos 5. Lion vs Stag & Lion vs Bull 6. Decorative: Rays 7. Battle of Pygmies and Cranes
Battle Between the Lapiths and Centaurs The Centaurs were invited by the Lapiths to the wedding of King Pirithous and Hippodamia. However, the Centaurs became quite drunk, and when Hippodamia came out to greet the guests, the centaur Eurytion, leapt up and tried to mount her. At once all the other centaurs rose up, straddling both the women and the boys. The Lapithmen buckled on their armour rushed to defend them.
Ajax & Achilles • Under each handle, a scene showing Ajax carrying the body of Achilles, soon after the death of Patroclus
Side B – First Band (neck) 1. Theseus – Liberation Dance Athenians were forced by King Minos to send a tribute of seven youths and seven maidens as payment for the death of his son. This scene shows the group after slaying the monster, in which Theseus led them in their return to Athens after defeating the Minotaur in Crete. In this scene Phaidimos jumps overboard of ship (triakonter) and another swims to the beach to join the dance.
Side B – Fourth band (body) 4. Return of Hephaestus • Involved with the myth of Hephaestus, who was rejected from Mt Olympus by his mother, Hera because he was a cripple. In this scene he rides a donkey following Dionysus who got him drunk and convinced him to return to Mt. Olympus. • Half-man half-goats called the Satyrs, who were associated with Dionysus
Return of Hephaestus Narrative Techniques: • The first satyr is bent over with the weight of his load • Smile on Hephaestus’ face • Both the donkey and the satyr are sexually aroused
Side A & B – Foot of the vaseBattle of Pygmies and Cranes This scene is one of the earliest known depictions of ‘The Geranomachy’ – battle between pygmies and cranes. Pygmies were armed with slings and sticks, and are known to be from Africa, India or Scythia. According to Homer – cranes fly to the southern stream of the ocean to attack the pygmies.
Composition • Clear and well-knit images • Many small images, each band telling a different story (although the overall theme is the success of the Greeks) • Painter had tried to use all the space available to him • Miniaturist style, compared to the Lydos, which is a grand style of Attic black figure
Painting Technique Silhouette • Most of the figures on the vase Incised Detail • The hair and face of King Priam, in the Pursuit of Troilus scene Added Colour • White added to paint the dog on the back of the Calydonian Boar
Women • Women are portrayed wearing big, long drapery. There is no shape in the bodies of the women yet • The women are painted with white paint (unlike the Amasis painter, who painted the women black) but this white paint was fragile and has chipped away which is why it looks like this