Colonization How did the physical environment of the New World impact the settlement patterns? How do political, social, and cultural characteristics vary among the thirteen colonies?
Introduction • England’s Thirteen Colonies were located on the Atlantic Coast in-between French Canada and Spanish Florida. • The Thirteen Colonies can be divided into three regions. Each region was unique and gave the English a wide variety of opportunities and “personalities.” Click on map for video
13 Original Colonies New England The Middle Colonies The South
New England The Middle Colonies The South 13 Colonies Map Click flag for video
Climate, Resources & People • Long winters & rocky soils • Fishing, Shipbuilding, Trade, and Smuggling • Heavy reliance on the Atlantic Ocean • People relied on Subsistence Farming – produced enough for themselves + a little extra for trading • Settlers from England made up the largest groups of the region’s population • John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Rush
People, continued … African Americans • Slavery wasn’t economical in New England because they weren’t needed for farming. • Many slaves worked in houses or were hired out for various jobs. • Slaves could eventually save enough money to purchase their freedom.
Government • John Winthrop was Massachusetts’ first governor • “The New England Way” – used by Puritans to describe their beliefs & society • The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut – extended voting rights to non-church members & limited the governor’s power
Economy • Land was sold to large groups – often Puritan congregations. • As a result towns grew in a way that was conducive to trade. • Towns usually centered around a “green” – a central square where many public activities took place.
Economy, Continued ... • Triangular Trade • part of three types of trade NE colonies engaged in • Iron, rum exchanged for slaves and gold – VERY PROFITABLE • Navigation Acts of 1651 • Law passed by the English in an attempt to get a cut out of New England’s wealthy trade. Difficult for the English to enforce. • Pirates like Blackbeard disrupted colonial shipping Click map for video
Social & Religious Changes • Early 1700’s saw many changes to Puritan society • Drive for economic success competed w/Puritan ideals • Increased competition from other religious groups • Political changes • England granted religious freedom for all Protestants, not just Puritans
The Colonial School • In 1647, law went into effect for education of children. • Towns consisting of 50 families or more must hire a teacher. • Towns that had 100+ families set up grammar schools to prepare them for the University. • Main focus was for reading, emphasis on bible.
The Schoolhouse • Townspeople joined together to build the schoolhouse – one room. • There was often a dirt floor and fireplace on one side of the room. • Parents send in wood to help heat the schoolhouse. • If children did not come by horse or hitch rides, they had to walk sometimes great distances. Frostbite was a common result. • School was closed during planting and harvesting season.
School Materials • Teachers collected their own books, used an abacus, and globe. • Teachers were responsible for making sure quill pens and ink were available for each child. • Because paper was rare, children also used slates and chalk using lamb’s wool as an eraser. • Once paper became affordable and available, older children used it and younger children were left with slates.
What They Learned • Teachers focused on the 3 R’s (readin’, writin’ and ‘rithmetic). • Did not have a backpack full of books • Young children used a horn book to learn the alphabet and numbers. • The horn book had letters and numbers carved on one side and a paper with prayers and poetry on the other side. • To protect the papers, a thin sheet of animal horn was tacked on top, thus the name.
What They Learned cont… • Bible was number one choice for reading and children copied out of it. • This allowed children to practice penmanship as well as memorize the scriptures. • Beautiful penmanship was highly prized and considered more important than spelling. • Young girls would also practice their alphabet numbers, and scriptures by embroidering them on fabric.
What They Learned cont… • As time went on, readers became available. These were loaded with scriptures and stories of Biblical living. • New England Primer by Noah Webster was widely used. This book “taught many to read and none to sin.” • Spelling was a source of competition. Schools would compete against each other in Spelling Bees.
Discipline in School • Towns usually hired men as teachers. Didn’t think women could handle unruly boys. • If child did not know the answer, they would wear a dunce cap. • Depending on the offense, would wear a sign around their neck, balancing on a wood block or a stool with one leg. • Spanked with leather strap or rapped on the hands with a rod.
The Middle Colonies New England The South 13 Colonies Map Click on flag for video
Climate, Resources & People • Shorter winters and more fertile soil • Climate was good for farming & livestock • Excellent ports and river systems (New York, NY on the Hudson; Philadelphia, PA on the Delaware) • Exported grain, furs, and whale oil and imported manufactured goods • Ship building • New York and Philly developed and expanded quickly • Rivaled the nicest cities of England.
People, Continued … • Was known for its diversity. • Heavy German influence in the region • German craftsman and artisans created many important goods: • Long rifles, iron works, glass, furniture, and dinner ware.
Government • Proprietors like The Duke of York (New York), King Charles II, and William Penn (Pennsylvania) owned most of the land grants • Set up colonies to compete with Dutch • “Penn’s Woods” later grants portion of land to Delaware colony
Climate of Tolerance • The wide variety of groups made it difficult for one group to dominate over another • As a result, there was a great deal of tolerance in the Middle Colonies, EXCEPT towards... • Some were slaves and some were free. Either way they worked as laborers, servants, drivers, sailors, and assistants • Racial tensions did exist, especially in NYC. • Violence was used by both sides – but African Americans were forced into submission. African Americans
The South New England The Middle Colonies 13 Colonies Map Click on flag for video
Climate & Resources • Warm climate & good soil – ideal for plantation crops like indigo, rice, corn, and tobacco. • As # of plantations grew, they became self-sufficient, so very few large cities developed in the South.
The People • “Planter Class” • Became wealthy off of the cash crops they grew • Dominated all aspects of Southern life • Viewed themselves as nobility. • George Washington, Thomas Jefferson & George Mason
The Need For Slavery • Plantations had difficulties finding the necessary labor to run a plantation. • Many indentured servants were leaving plantations. • Turned to slave labor. Africans already established as reliable slaves – so planters started to use them. • Kept under control with strict slave codes.
Government • Colonies throughout the South started for radically different reasons: • Maryland – George Calvert (tobacco production to offset his losses in NE) • Carolinas – Ruled by 8 “Lord’s Proprietors” and settled by British colony from Barbados • Georgia – refuge for debtors • Virginia – haven for some English convicts, and others hoped to make their fortunes
The Story of The Carolinas • Carolinas settled privately by 8 “Lord’s Proprietors” • Carolinas frequently clashed with Native tribes • Colonists overthrew Carolina colony after proprietors refused to defend Charleston against Spanish attack • Later, Carolinas became too large to govern – split in 1712