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Basic and advanced Praat Scripting. Kyuchul Yoon Division of English Kyungnam University Seoul National University, Linguistics Department, 2006. 12.09. Praat Scripting Language. Where to Get Help A Brief Look at a Sample Script Basic Topics Advanced Topics Hands-on Activities

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basic and advanced praat scripting

Basic and advancedPraat Scripting

Kyuchul Yoon

Division of English

Kyungnam University

Seoul National University, Linguistics Department, 2006. 12.09

praat scripting language
Praat Scripting Language
  • Where to Get Help
  • A Brief Look at a Sample Script
  • Basic Topics
  • Advanced Topics
  • Hands-on Activities
  • Scripting Examples
where to get help
Where to Get Help
  • Built-in manual “Help” menu of Praat (“search” button)
  • Official Praat homepagewww.praat.org
  • Discussion grouphttp://uk.groups.yahoo.com/group/praat-users/
  • Scripts from other people“Files” menu from the discussion grouphttp://ling.osu.edu/~kyoon/scripts/praat/http://ling.osu.edu/~welby/praat.html
basic topics
Basic Topics
  • Looks of Praat
  • What Praat can do
  • What is an object? (.TextGrid)
  • How to run a script (example)
  • Language elements
    • Comments, continuation lines, white space
    • Variables, arrays, formulas
    • Jumps, loops
basic topics looks of praat
Basic Topics: Looks of Praat
  • Windows: Praat objects, Praat picture, Editor
  • Menus: Praat, New, Read, Write
  • Command buttons (context-sensitive)
    • Activated when an object is selected
    • Changes depending on the type of an object (e.g. Sound)…Help, Edit, Play, Draw…, Query-, Modify-, Annotate-Analyse: Periodicity-, Spectrum-, Formants & LPC-, …, To Intensity…Manipulate: To Manipulation…Synthesize: Convert-, Filter-, Combine sounds-
  • Command buttons (fixed)
    • Rename…, Copy…, Info, Remove, Inspect
basic topics what praat can do
Basic Topics: What Praat can do
  • General functionsSound recordingAnalyses (spectral, pitch, formant, intensity)AnnotationManipulation (pitch, duration, intensity, formant)
  • Specialized functionsVoice analysis (jitter, shimmer, noise)Listening experimentsFilteringSynthesis (source-filter, articulatory)Learning (neural networks, OT learning)Statistics (multi-dimensional scaling, etc.)
basic topics what is an object textgrid
Basic Topics: What is an object? (.TextGrid)
  • A segment of computer memory
  • Contains a set of data in the Praat program
  • Resides in the Praat object window (e.g. sample.wav)
    • e.g.) Sound sample
  • Is NOT a file! (Must be saved!)
  • Needs to be clicked to be selected (Shift, Ctrl, dragging)
  • Types of objectsSound, Spectrum, Spectrogram, TextGrid, Pitch, Formant, Intensity, Manipulation
basic topics what is an object textgrid9
Basic Topics: What is an object? (.TextGrid)
  • TextGrid object
    • Created with a sound object selected Annotate-To TextGrid…
    • Used for annotation (segmentation and labeling)
    • Consists of a number of tiers
    • Two kinds of tiers:
      • Interval tier: a connected sequence of labeled intervals with boundaries in between
      • Point tier: a sequence of labeled points
basic topics what is an object textgrid10
Basic Topics: What is an object? (.TextGrid)
  • Examining an object through Query…
    • Gives you information about the selected object
    • Information is displayed by default in the Info window
    • Query results can be used to put information into a variable
      • myStartTime = Get start time
      • myPointLabel$ = Get label of point… 1 1
  • Modifying an object through Modify…
    • Query results can be used to modify an object, e.g. TextGrid
      • Set point text… 1 1 ‘myPointLabel$’
basic topics how to run a script example
Basic Topics: How to run a script (example)
  • What is a script?
    • An executable text with menu commands and action commands
    • Praat ==> New/Open Praat script
    • In the script editor, Run ==> Run
  • Edit ==> Paste history in the script editor
    • Records all the menu/action commands
    • Can be used to copy/paste recorded commands
    • Constants could be replaced with variables
    • Clear history to erase all the earlier commands
    • A good source for beginners!
basic topics how to run a script example12
Basic Topics: How to run a script (example)

Paste history

Read from file... D:\recording\2syllAP-LHa.wav

To TextGrid... "phonological phonetic" phonetic

plus Sound 2syllAP-LHa

Edit

select TextGrid 2syllAP-LHa

Insert boundary... 1 0.5

Set interval text... 1 1 test

=================================================================

fileLocation$ = "D:\recording\2syllAP-LHa.wav"

uTonesTierName$ = "phonological"

sTonesTierName$ = "phonetic"

uTonesTier = 1

intervalText$ = "test"

Read from file... 'fileLocation$'

Rename… soundObj

To TextGrid... "'uTonesTierName$' 'sTonesTierName$'" 'sTonesTierName$'

Rename… textgridObj

plus Sound soundObj

Edit

pause Insert a sample interval?

select TextGrid textgridObj

Insert boundary... uTonesTier 0.5

Set interval text... uTonesTier 1 'intervalText$'

Now a script!

basic topics language elements
Basic Topics: Language elements
  • Comments, continuation lines, white space
    • All white spaces (and tabs) at line beginnings are ignored
      • You can use indenting to make your script readable (tabs preferred)sum = 0 for i to 10 for j to 10 sum = sum + i*j endfor endfor pause The total sum is ‘sum’
    • Comments lines start with # or ! or ; (# preferred)
    • You can split long command lines into multiple lines using …
      • myStringVariable$ = left$(myMainSentence$, (lengthOfUtterance-…lengthOfRightWord))
basic topics language elements14
Basic Topics: Language elements
  • Variables, arrays, formulas
    • Numeric variables, variable = formula
      • e.g.) lengthOfSentence = 10
    • String variables (end in a dollar sign), variable$ = string
      • e.g.) sentenceToProcess$ = “Praat rules”
      • Predefined string variables: newline$, tab$, shellDirectory$
    • Variable substitution (in between single quotes), ‘variable$’
      • e.g.) echo The number of characters is ‘lengthOfSentence’
      • e.g.) Try ‘lengthOfSentence:2’
    • Array variables: simulated with quote substitution
      • e.g.) for j from 1 to 5 square‘j’ = j*j endforsquare1 = 1, square2 = 4, square3 = 9, square4 = 16, square5 = 25
basic topics language elements15
Basic Topics: Language elements
  • Jumps, loops

for/endfor################################################# throws = 0repeat sum = randomInteger(1,6) + randomInteger(1,6) throws = throws + 1until sum = 12echo Took me ‘throws’ trials#################################################throws = 1sum = randomInteger(1,6) + randomInteger(1,6)while sum <> 12 throws = throws + 1 sum = randomInteger(1,6) + randomInteger(1,6)endwhileecho Took me ‘throws’ trials

advanced topics
Advanced Topics
  • Arguments to commands/scripts
  • Object selection
  • Calling system commands
  • Info window, user interaction, file handling
  • Scripting in an editor window
advanced topics arguments to commands scripts
Advanced TopicsArguments to commands/scripts
  • form/endform keywordsform Types of script arguments

natural numOfSentences_(positive_whole_number) 337

integer amplitudeSteps_(whole_number) -2000

real factorOfZoomOut_(real_number) -3.5

positive factorOfZoomIn_(positive_real_number) 4.7

comment A line with any text

word targetWord_(string_without_spaces) school

sentence targetSentence_(any_short_string) my school

text targetText_(variableName_not_shown) my school bus

boolean trueOrFalse_(with_a_checkbox) 1

choice myChoice_(with_a_radiobox) 1

button choice 1

button choice 2

button choice 3

comment Choose any color

optionmenu Color: 2

option Red

option Green

endform

advanced topics object selection
Advanced TopicsObject selection
  • How to select objects from your scriptselect Sound hello1 plus Sound hello2 minus Sound hello2 select all minus Sound hello2 Rename… greeting1 Remove ################## fullFileName$ = “male02-Seoul-32yrs.wav” Read from file… ‘fullFileName$’ filePrefix$ = fullFileName$ - “.wav” newTextGridName$ = filePrefix$ + “.TextGrid”
advanced topics calling system commands
Advanced TopicsCalling system commands
  • Call system (DOS/Unix/Linux) commands from a scriptdirectoryName$ = “resultFolder”system_nocheck mkdir ‘directoryName$’will create a new subfolder in the current folder
advanced topics info window user interaction files
Advanced TopicsInfo window, user interaction, files
  • Writing to the Info window from a script…
    • echo text, clearinfo, printtext, printtab, printlinetext
  • A sample scriptclearinfoprintline Minimum MaximumminValue = 1maxValue = 10print ‘minValue’printtabprint ‘maxValue’
advanced topics info window user interaction files21
Advanced TopicsInfo window, user interaction, files
  • Messages to the user
    • exit text : to stop the execution of the script with the text message
    • nowarn Write to WAV file… hello.wav : prevents warning messages, e.g. about clipped sound samples
    • noprogress To Pitch… 0 75 500 : prevents from showing a progress window
    • nocheck Remove : causes the script to continue even if there’s nothing to remove
    • pausetext : temporarily halts a Praat script. Continue & Stop buttons.
      • Can be used to accept user actions which will be stored in variables
      • e.g.) User selecting a particular section of a sound object in an editorstartOfSelection = Get start of selection endOfSelection = Get end of selection
advanced topics info window user interaction files22
Advanced TopicsInfo window, user interaction, files
  • File handling
    • Reading an existing file, e.g. hello.wav, sentences.txt
      • Read from file… C:/sound/hello.wav
      • Read Strings from raw text file… C:/text/sentences.txt
    • Creating a new text file in the current folder, e.g. result.txt
      • fileappend result.txt Hello world!’newline$’
      • fileappend result.txt I am back!
    • Deleting an existing file
      • filedelete C:/sound/hello.wav
    • Getting a list of file names of a particular folder
      • Create Strings as file list… fileListObj C:/sound/*.wav
        • The object fileListObj has a list of filename strings in one column
        • With for/endfor, repeated actions can be taken
advanced topics scripting in an editor window
Advanced TopicsScripting in an editor window
  • In a Praat script
    • editor/endeditor required
  • In an editor script
    • Only endeditor is required

editor Sound soundObj#do your stuff herecursorPosition = Get cursorSelect... cursorPosition-0.02 cursorPosition+0.02Extract sound selection (time from 0)

endeditor

To Spectrum (fft)

Edit

hands on activities
Hands-on Activities
  • Write a script that will help measure the duration of a user-selected segment for all of the .wav files in a folderKeywords to use:form/endformCreate Strings as file list…for/endforEditpausefileappend
hands on activities25
Hands-on Activities

# Put variables here

form Parameter settings

word inFolder_(with_sounds) demo-folder

word outFile_(to_be_created) measurements.txt

endform

# Make a list of files in the folder

Create Strings as file list... fileListObj ‘inFolder$’/*.wav

Sort

numOfFiles = Get number of strings

pause ‘numOfFiles’ files identified. Continue?

# Loop through each file

for iFile to numOfFiles

select Strings fileListObj

fileName$ = Get string... iFile

pause Opening the file ‘fileName$’

Read from file... ‘inFolder$’/’fileName$’

Rename... soundObj

Edit

editor Sound soundObj

pause Select the target segment

targetDuration = Get selection length

endeditor

Remove

fileappend ‘outFile$’ ‘fileName$’‘tab$’‘targetDuration:2’‘newline$’

endfor

Remove all

# End of script

scripting examples
Scripting Examples
  • Scripts for(1) Prosody swapping(2) Speech corpus searching(3) K-ToBI labeling