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11.2. Types of Chemical Reactions.

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types of chemical reactions


Types of Chemical Reactions
  • The heat and smoke of burning charcoal are the products of a combustion reaction. Combustion is one of the five general types of chemical reactions. If you can recognize a reaction as being a particular type, you may be able to predict the products of the reaction.
classifying reactions
Five general types of chemical reactions:

combination (synthesis)





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Classifying Reactions


classifying reactions1


Classifying Reactions
  • Combination Reactions
    • A combination reaction is a chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance.
classifying reactions2


Classifying Reactions
  • Decomposition Reactions
    • A decomposition reaction is a chemical change in which a single compound breaks down into two or more simpler products.
classifying reactions3


Classifying Reactions
  • Single-Replacement Reactions
    • A single-replacement reaction is a chemical change in which one element replaces a second element in a compound.
classifying reactions4


Classifying Reactions
  • The activity series of metals lists metals in order of decreasing reactivity.
  • For a single-replacement reaction to occur, the element that is displaced must be less active than the element that is doing the displacing.
  • Metals above Hydrogen in the activity series will replace H from acids.
  • Zn(s) + 2 HCl (aq) → H2 (g) + ZnCl2 (aq)
  • Metals below Hydrogen in the activity series will not react with acids.
classifying reactions5


Classifying Reactions
  • Double-Replacement Reactions
    • A double-replacement reaction is a chemical change involving an exchange of positive ions between two compounds.
classifying reactions6


Classifying Reactions
  • Combustion Reactions (see regents ref tables)
    • A combustion reaction is a chemical change in which an element or a compound reacts with oxygen, often producing energy in the form of heat and light.


  • your regents reference tables are helpful for writing equations for combustion reactions
  • Examples:
predicting the products of a chemical reaction


Predicting the Products of a Chemical Reaction
  • Predicting the Products of a Chemical Reaction
        • How can you predict the products of the five general types of reactions?
        • The number of elements and/or compounds reacting is a good indicator of possible reaction type and thus possible products.
11 2 section quiz1
11.2 Section Quiz.
  • 1. What type of reaction is described by the following equation?
  • 6Li + N2 2Li3N
    • combination reaction
    • decomposition reaction
    • single-replacement reaction
    • combustion reaction
11 2 section quiz2
11.2 Section Quiz.
  • 2. Balance the following equation and indicate whether it represents a combustion, combination, or decomposition reaction.
  • H2SO4 H2O2 + SO2
    • H2SO4 H2O2 + SO2, combination reaction
    • H2SO4 H2O2 + SO2, decomposition reaction
    • H2SO4 2H2O2 + SO2, combination reaction
    • H2SO4 2H2O2 + SO2, decomposition reaction
reactions in aqueous solution


Reactions in Aqueous Solution
  • Structures in limestone caverns are formed when carbon dioxide converts calcium hydrogen carbonate into calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate precipitates and forms dramatic stalactites and stalagmites. You will learn to predict the formation of precipitates and write equations to describe the reactions that produce them.


When AgNO3 (aq) and NaCl (aq) are mixed, a white precipitate of AgCl (s) is formed. We can write a balanced equation to describe this double-replacement reaction:

AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) → AgCl (s) + NaNO3 (aq)

Two other types of equations can be written for this reaction (complete ionic equation and a net-ionic equation)

  • A complete ionic equation is an equation that shows dissolved ionic compounds as dissociated free ions.
net ionic equations


Net Ionic Equations

An ion that appears on both sides of an equation and is not directly involved in the reaction is called a spectator ion.

The net ionic equation is an equation for a reaction in solution that shows only those particles that are directly involved in the chemical change.

net ionic equations1


Net Ionic Equations

Complete ionic equation:

Sodium ions and nitrate ions are not changed during the chemical reaction of silver nitrate and sodium chloride so the net ionic equation is

predicting the formation of a precipitate


Predicting the Formation of a Precipitate
  • Predicting the Formation of a Precipitate
    • How can you predict the formation of a precipitate in a double-replacement reaction?
    • You can predict the formation of a precipitate by using the general rules for solubility of ionic compounds and by using the regents reference tables.
predicting the formation of a precipitate1


Predicting the Formation of a Precipitate

Will a precipitate form when a sodium carbonate solution is mixed with a barium nitrate solution?

Hints: what are the products? and are those products soluble? (Use your reference tables).

predicting the formation of a precipitate2
Predicting the Formation of a Precipitate


Balanced equation:

Ba(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 (aq)→ BaCO3 (s) + 2 NaNO3 (aq)

Complete ionic equation:

Ba2+(aq) + 2 NO3 - (aq) + 2 Na+(aq) + CO3 2- (aq)

→ BaCO3(s) + 2 Na+(aq)+ 2 NO3 - (aq)

Net Ionic equation:

Sodium nitrate is soluble but barium carbonate is insoluble. The net ionic equation is

11 3 section quiz
11.3 Section Quiz.
  • 2. Which one of the following products of double-replacement reactions would NOT form a precipitate?
    • AgCl
    • PbSO4
    • Mg(OH)2
    • Mo(NO3)2
11 3 section quiz1
11.3 Section Quiz
  • 3. Which reaction will NOT produce a precipitate from aqueous solution?
    • Hg2(NO3)2 + KCl
    • FeSO4 + Ba(OH)2
    • Pb(NO3)2 + Na2CO3
    • NaBr + Al2(SO4)2