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Renaissance & Reformation. Setting Stage. Middle Ages in Europe Suffered from WAR and PLAGUE Survivors wanted to celebrate life and human spirit People began questioning their institutions (especially the church). Italy’s Advantages. Renaissance (1300-1600) revival of art and learning

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setting stage
Setting Stage
  • Middle Ages in Europe
    • Suffered from WAR and PLAGUE
    • Survivors wanted to celebrate life and human spirit
    • People began questioning their institutions (especially the church)
italy s advantages
Italy’s Advantages
  • Renaissance (1300-1600)
    • revival of art and learning
  • Wanted culture of Ancient Greece & Rome back
  • Led to placing importance on individual
  • Spread from Italy to rest of Europe
  • 3 Reasons:
    • Thriving cities
    • Wealthy merchant class
    • Heritage from Greece/Rome
city states
  • Trade and the Crusades led to growth of Italy’s cities
  • N. Italy was more urban than rest of Europe
  • Bubonic Plague- hit cities killing 60% of population
  • Economic changes occurred
  • Merchants began pursuing art
merchants prosper
Merchants Prosper
  • Smaller city-states
    • High citizen participation in gov.
    • merchants dominated politics
  • Did not inherit power- had to be earned
  • Individual achievement became important
  • Medici Family
    • Cosimo de Medici- wealthiest person in Europe
    • Bribed ruling council to become dictator
    • Ruled for 30 years
  • Study of classical texts (Greece/Rome) led to humanism
  • Intellectual movement focused on human potential & achievement
  • Influenced artist/architects to continue classical style
  • Education- history, literature, philosophy
worldly pleasures
Worldly Pleasures
  • Middle ages- rough clothes/plain foods
  • Humanists
    • enjoy life w/out offending God
    • During Renaissance the wealthy enjoyed material luxuries, good music, & fine foods
  • Many remained devout Catholics
  • Spirit of Renaissance was SECULAR
    • Worldly rather than spiritual (concerned w/ here and now)
renaissance men
Renaissance Men
  • All educated people were expected to create art
  • Patrons- financially supported arts
  • “Ideal” person strove to master all areas of study
  • Castiglione- wrote The Courtier how to be that person
    • Charming, witty, well-educated in the classics
    • Dance, sing, play music & write poetry
    • Skilled rider (horse), wrestler, & swordsman
renaissance women
Renaissance Women
  • Upper-class were better educated than Medieval women
  • Most had little influence on politics
  • Inspire art but NOT create it
  • Isabella
    • Married ruler of another city state
    • Built famous art collection
    • Skilled in politics
art artist
  • Brought back perspective technique
    • Shows 3D on a flat surface
  • Painters began to paint prominent citizens
    • Emphasis on individual
    • Michelangelo- realistic style depicting human body
    • Donatello- made sculpture realistic by carving natural postures/expressions
    • Raphael- School of Athens
    • Leonardo Da Vinci- Mona Lisa & Last Supper
da vinci
Da Vinci
  • Painter, sculpture, inventor, & scientist
  • Studied how things work (muscles/veins)
  • Used finds in art
  • Best known pieces
    • Mona Lisa
    • The Last Supper
  • Writers reflected their time and used techniques we use today
  • Many followed example of Dante (Medieval writer)
    • Vernacular- wrote in native language (Latin)
  • Writers wrote for self-expression or portray the individuality of their subjects
  • Petrarch****
    • Father of renaissance humanism
    • Great poet
    • Wrote in Italian & Latin
    • Wrote sonnets- 14 line poems
  • Machiavelli
    • Examined imperfect conduct of humans
    • Political guidebook
    • The Prince-book
    • Discovered people are selfish, fickle, & corrupt
    • More concerned with politically effective rather than morally right
  • Vittoria Colonna
    • Women writer
    • Personal subjects not politics
    • Pg. 43 (read poem)
elizabethan age
Elizabethan Age
  • William Shakespeare
    • The most famous writer of the Elizabethan Age
    • Greatest playwright of all time
    • Most famous plays:
      • Macbeth
      • Othello
      • Romeo & Juliet
      • Hamlet
printing press
Printing Press
  • Johann Gutenberg
    • Craftsman from Germany
    • 1440- created printing press
      • Some say it was more influential than invention of computers
    • Produce books quick and cheap
    • Made books/knowledge available to all people
    • Most books were religious books (Bible)
legacy of renaissance
Legacy of Renaissance
  • Changes in Art
    • Drew on classical styles from Rome/Greece
    • Painting/sculptures were more realistic
    • Secular works not just religious
    • Praised individual achievement
  • Changes in society
    • Printing press made information cheap/available
    • Availability of books promoted desire for learning
    • New discoveries, maps, and charts led to discoveries
    • People began to question political structures and religious practices
exit slip 9 4 14
Exit Slip 9/4/14
  • Who invented the printing press?
  • What country was the printing press invented in?
  • How long did it take to make one copy of the Bible before the printing press was created?
  • What book was printed the most after the creation of the printing press?
causes of reformation
Causes of Reformation
  • Social
    • Values of humanism and secularism led people to question the church
    • Printing press helped spread those ideas
  • Political
    • Powerful monarchs vs. church for supreme power
    • People viewed the Pope as a foreign ruler and challenged authority
  • Economic
    • European Princes and kings were jealous of church’s wealth
    • People resented paying taxes to the church
  • Religious
    • Church leaders had become worldly corrupt
    • Sale of indulgences (pardon) was unacceptable
martin luther
Martin Luther
  • Occupation/career- Monk & teacher
    • Taught religious scripture @ University of Wittenberg (Germany)
  • 95 Theses
    • Made public stand against Friar
    • Sold indulgences-released sinners from penalty imposed by pope
    • Raising $ for St. Peter’s cathedral
    • Luther wrote formal statements criticizing the Friar and published them on church door
luther s teachings
Luther’s Teachings
  • 3 Principles
  • People could win salvation only by faith in God’s gift of forgiveness
    • Church taught faith by “good works” got salvation
  • All church teachings should be based on words of the Bible
    • Both church & pope were false authorities
  • All people with faith are equal
    • People do no need priests to interpret Bible for them
response to luther
Response to Luther
  • Pope Leo X
    • Punished Luther by excommunicating him from the church
  • Charles V- Holy Roman Emperor
    • Devout catholic
    • Called Luther to town of Worms- demanded that he take back his statements (Luther refused)
    • Edict of Worms- Imperial order
      • No one in the empire was allowed to giver Luther food or shelter
      • Books were to be burned
  • Prince Frederick the Wise
    • Sheltered Luther @ one of his castles
    • Luther translated New Testament to German
  • Lutheran Church
    • 1522 ideas were put to practice
    • Started a separate religious group (Lutherans)
peasants revolt
Peasants Revolt
  • Wanted to use Luther’s ideas in society
  • Demanded end of serfdom- like slavery
    • Wasn’t granted- Peasants rebelled
    • Raided/burned monasteries
    • Luther was horrified by their actions
    • Rebellion was put down (100,000 est. peasants were killed)
germany @ war
Germany @ War
  • Norhthern/Southern German princes disagreed on whether to accept Luther’s teachings
  • War between Protestants & Catholics
    • Saw his teachings as a way to seize church property and be independent from Charles V
    • Protestants
      • Protesting princes
      • Term describes Christians who belong to non-Catholic Churches
  • Peace of Augsburg
    • Granted each prince to decide whether his subjects would be protestant or catholic
henry viii
Henry VIII
  • King of England
  • Challenged Catholic Churches authority
  • Wanted a son
    • Needed an heir to prevent a civil war after his death
    • 1st wife gave birth to a daughter (Elizabeth)
      • Wife was eventually executed
    • Pope refused to grant him a annul---divorce
  • Reformation Parliament
    • Passed laws that took England out of the Catholic Church
    • Made King/Queen head of the church in England
  • Henry’s Legacy
    • 3rd wife gave him a son (Edward)- became King @ age 9 and ruled for 6 yrs
    • 1533 Henry’s 2nd daughter (Mary) took the throne and returned English Church to rule of the pope---very unpopular
    • Elizabeth inherited throne in 1558 after Mary dies
elizabeth i
Elizabeth I
  • 1st Daughter of Henry 8th
  • Became queen of England in 1558
  • Created Church of England—Anglican Church
    • Appealed to both Protestants and Catholics
    • End religious conflict in England
john calvin
John Calvin
  • Book- Institutes of the Christian Religion
    • Expressed ideas about god, salvation, & human nature
    • Men & women are sinful by nature
  • Predestination
    • God chooses few people to save “the elect”
    • God has known since the beginning of time who is saved & who is not saved
  • Calvinism- people that followed John Calvin’s teachings
  • Theocracy
    • Calvin’s ideal gov.
    • Gov. controlled by religious leaders
  • John Knox
    • Followed Calvin
    • Started Presbyterian church in Scottland
catholic reformation
Catholic Reformation
  • Movement to stay loyal to Catholic church
  • Jesuits
    • Religious order created by the pope
    • Mission:
      • Set up superb schools in Europe
      • Convert Christians to Catholics
      • Stop spread of protestant religion
  • Council of Trent (pg.65)
    • Meeting of Catholic bishops & cardinals
    • Agreed on new policies for the church
legacy of reformation
Legacy of Reformation
  • Social
    • New religions
    • Stronger Catholic church
    • New emphasis on education (parish schools, colleges, universities)
  • Political
    • Monarchs gained more power
    • Development of modern nation-states
    • Excites exploration/expansion
    • Challenging of authority lays groundwork for Enlightenment (ch.6)