Fermented Meat By Akrum Hamdy. Contents 1. Introduction a) Nutritional role of meat in the human diet b) The relationship between meat in the diet and disease 2. The history and culture related to fermented meat 3. The fermentation process
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a) Nutritional role of meat in the human diet
b) The relationship between meat in the diet and disease
2. The history and culture related to fermented meat
3. The fermentation process
a) Fermentation of a comminuted meat matrix
i) Variables in sausages production
ii) Sausages as possible probiotics
b) Fermentation of whole meat products (Ham)
4. Composition and changes during fermentation a) Fermentation Microflora b) Acidification, Dehydration, and Microbial Antagonism c) Proteolytic and Lipolytic degradation during fermentation d) Generation of flavor volatiles e) Biogenic Amines 5. Potential Beneficial health effects of Bacteria involved in meat 6. Conclusions 7. References
Meat is the flesh (muscle tissue ) of warm-blooded animals,
but fermented specialties from poultry ( sausages as well as cured and smoked fermented poultry) are available.
What is fermented sausage?
A sausage is fermented if
-its pH below 5.6 and D-lactic acid content above 0.2%
-its colour is heat-stable
-its texture is no longer crumble
-its aroma is typical
-lactic acid bacteria predominate
-Enterobacteriaceae counts are low
Table. 1Meat consumption in the 1980s and 1990s (g per person per day) Country 1980s 1990s United states 310 231Australia 296 290United Kingdom 201 204 France 290 305 Germany 269 261 Japan 100 123 China 25 108Source: The values quoted are from the Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD) for the years 1982-1984 and 1992, respectively. The exception is China; these values are taken from Asia Pacific Food Industry 7, 14, 1995, using the years 1979 and 1994. The figures include bone weight.
1) Classical Ham- Made from thigh of hog with or without bone
2) Cuts of Meat-Pork
3) Other Animal Sources- beef
1) water activity ( drying, salting) and/ or pH (fermentation, acidification)
2) smoking, storage at refrigeration or freezing temperatures,
3) use of curing aids (nitrite and nitrate)
Fermentation process : two types
-foods from a comminuted matrix
-whole meat products.
a) Variables in sausage production
Mechanisms for generation of flavor compounds
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