meeting of state pooled fund partners april 20 2005 n.
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"Reducing Crashes at Rural Intersections: Toward a Multi-State Consensus on Rural Intersection Decision Support". Meeting of State Pooled Fund Partners April 20, 2005. Why we’re here: Fatalities at Rural Unsignalized Intersections. Crashes in rural areas are more severe than in urban areas

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Meeting of State Pooled Fund Partners April 20, 2005

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why we re here fatalities at rural unsignalized intersections
Why we’re here:Fatalities at Rural Unsignalized Intersections
  • Crashes in rural areas are more severe than in urban areas
    • While 70% of all crashes in Minnesota occur in urban areas,70% of fatal crashes occur in rural areas.
  • Along Minnesota’s Trunk Highway System, there are more rural through/stop intersections (3,920) than all categories of urban intersections (3,714) combined
  • During a three-year period (1998-2000), 62% of all intersection-related fatal crashes in Minnesota occurred at rural through/stop intersections
assist the driver
Assist the Driver
  • Focus on:
    • Driver error causal factors
    • Fatal and life changing intersection crashes
  • Provide the driver with information that will improve judgment of gap clearance and timing
        • Intersection Decision Support
  • Rural unsignalized intersections:
    • High-speed roads
    • Through stop intersections
  • Traffic surveillance and wireless communications technologies & on-site validation
  • Gap detection/estimation & on-site validation
  • Human interface (Driver Infrastructure Interface, DII) design and evaluation of concepts (in driving simulator) for communicating to the driver
pooled fund project towards a multi state consensus
Pooled Fund Project:Towards a Multi-State Consensus

State pooled fund project for rural intersection IDS, includes

… MN, GA, IA, MI, NC, NH, NV, WI

Multiple goals for state pooled fund:

  • Assistance/buy-in for new countermeasure
    • Goal: Develop nationally acceptable design
      • Performance, Maintenance, Acceptability
      • Interoperability
  • Increased data collection capability
    • Identify intersections where IDS applies
    • Determine driving behavior at intersections in participating states
      • Regional vs. national driver behavior
  • Overview
  • Transition to Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System (CICAS)
  • State intersection crash data analysis
  • IDS Human Factors
    • Results of Simulator study, candidate interfaces
  • Results of IDS Rural Intersection Data Collection
    • Statistics, Performance
  • Motivation for Portable Rural Intersection Surveillance System
    • Limited interest in surveillance system (with no driver interface)
    • In response, proposing portable surveillance system to be taken from state to state.
  • Portable Surveillance System Design
  • Pooled fund finances
  • Intersection field visit
cooperative intersection collision avoidance systems cicas
Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems (CICAS)
  • Program of U.S. DOT, 7 automotive OEM members (GM, Ford, Toyota, DCX, BMW, Nissan, Volkswagen) of Collision Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP), and the Infrastructure Consortium (IC) consisting of 4 state DOTs (VA, CA, MN, MI) and designated universities.
  • Consists of 2 tracks:
    • Track 1. Development of Cooperative Violation Warning (CVW) for prevention of signal and stop sign violation crashes (CAMP is lead)
    • Track 2. Development of comprehensive CICAS that addresses the crash types encountered in an intersection. (IC is lead)
cooperative violation warning cvw
Cooperative Violation Warning (CVW)
  • Objective: Prevent intersection crashes by preventing traffic signal and stop sign violations.
  • When the vehicle approaches the intersection, it will receive (via DSRC link) a high precision geometric map, which enables it together with GPS to identify its lane position.
    • At simple intersections without dedicated turn lanes, the vehicle has to only identify its road position.
  • The vehicle will receive signal phase and timing information. Based on this information and knowledge about its position and dynamic state, the vehicle will issue an alert to the driver if it determines that the vehicle is going to run a red light and/or not be able to clear the intersection box before the cross traffic signal turns green.
  • California has added an additional feature: If an alert is issued, this information is sent back to the intersection which then extends the red hold or initiates other infrastructure based countermeasures.
fully cooperative intersection fci
Fully Cooperative Intersection (FCI)
  • Builds on CVW AND addresses other potential crash scenarios, such as crashes based on erroneous gap acceptance.
  • Enables warning regarding non-DSRC equipped vehicles through DII.
  • Uses infrastructure based sensors to sense vehicles approaching intersection.
  • From sensor data and dynamic information that DSRC equipped vehicles send to the intersection, the intersection assembles a ‘picture’ of the dynamic traffic state – a state map.
  • State map is broadcast and vehicles that receive it will derive the information for issuing warnings for signal violations and gap acceptance.
  • If sensors for detecting pedestrians or other vulnerable road users are available in either the infrastructure or the vehicles, then this information can also be represented in the state map and measures for protecting vulnerable road users can be undertaken.
3 applications included in fci
3 Applications Included in FCI
  • TCD violation crashes, with a driver-infrastructure interface (DII), in addition to the DVI used in CVW.
  • Lateral gap acceptance at stop-sign controlled intersections, with a DII initially, and a driver-vehicle interface (DVI) to follow in Yr 3 when the in-vehicle application will be developed.
  • Opposite direction gap acceptance, initially with the DII, and with DVI to follow, again in Yr 3 when the in-vehicle application will be developed.
  • These applications build on the Intersection Decision Support (IDS) results.
major program milestones
Major Program Milestones
  • Anticipated project duration is 5 years with an estimated start date of June 1, 2005.
  • Statement of work under development for first 2 years of project.
  • Planning for last 3 years of project will be started in the middle of 2006 and a detailed project plan will be ready by end of 2006.
track 1 major milestones years 1 2
Track 1 Major Milestones, Years 1-2
  • Intersection identified for CVW system development - 3 in California and 3 in Michigan
  • Fully integrated tested CVW infrastructure system at 6 intersections
  • CVW system engineering demonstrations by each OEM to USDOT in Michigan and in California.
  • First DVI developed for pilot Field Operational Test
track 2 major milestones years 1 2
Track 2 Major Milestones , Years 1-2
  • Workshop to define initial state map requirements.
  • Workshop to define message sets requirements.
  • Initial definition of state map structure, incorporating the geometric, signal controller, and dynamic object state information.
  • Demonstrations of state map broadcasts from intersections.
  • Real-time implementation of data fusion software for use in prototype intersections.
  • MUTCD approvals for experimental use of DII’s in public.
  • Engineering demonstration at a live intersection of
    • DII-based violation warning system.
    • DII-based lateral gap acceptance system.
    • DII-based opposite direction gap acceptance system.