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Foundations of Psychology. Early Greek Philosophers – source of most of our western ideas Medicine – primarily early Greek and Roman involved a transition from mysticism to more scientific ideas. Early Greek Philosophers. Thales

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foundations of psychology
Foundations of Psychology
  • Early Greek Philosophers – source of most of our western ideas
  • Medicine – primarily early Greek and Roman involved a transition from mysticism to more scientific ideas
early greek philosophers
Early Greek Philosophers
  • Thales
    • Things in the universe consist of natural substances and operate through natural laws
    • Use of mathematics to predict future events
    • Stressed the importance of critical thinking
early greek philosophers3
Early Greek Philosophers
  • Pythagoras – student of Thales
    • Described a mathematical relationship between the physical world and our psychological experience
    • Much of his work with mathematics became the basis for Western science
    • Also important, he was a strong influence on a later philosopher, Plato
the greek physician hippocrates
The Greek Physician Hippocrates
  • Hippocrates – made medical and psychological contributions
    • Medical
      • Diseases are the result of natural processes
      • Help the body help itself – do no harm
    • Psychological
      • Brain is the center of mental processes
      • Epilepsy is a disease not an intervention of the gods
      • One side of the brain controlled the opposite side of the body
the roman physician galen
The Roman Physician Galen
  • 130-200A.D. – court physician to Roman Emperor
    • Reintroduced the brain as the center of thought
    • Described the basic methods involved in what is now called psychological therapy
    • Not always correct – described the function of the heart wrong
socrates
Socrates
  • A rationalist who used deductive reasoning
  • Questioned everything, even things people were sure they knew
  • Role of a teacher is to help students find truth
  • Sentence to death for “undermining the state and corrupting the youth
plato
Plato
  • Student of Socrates and used similar methods of thought
  • Encouraged students to look for underlying realities
  • Our sensory information is unreliable
  • Plato’s Republic – probably his most important work
aristotle
Aristotle
  • Student of Plato
  • Used inductive reasoning instead of deductive – careful observation better than pure rational thought
  • Developed basic principles of memory that continue to be used today
  • His use of inductive reasoning also led him to incorrect conclusions
aristotle9
Aristotle
  • Became one of the most important influences on Western Philosophy and science
  • However one idea was used by others to severely hinder the advancement of science for nearly 1000 years
the idea of the unmoved mover
The Idea of the Unmoved Mover
  • Teleology – everything is directed towards a definitive end and a final purpose
  • An acorn’s purpose is to grow to be an oak tree
  • A girl is potentially a woman, but first an actual woman has to exist
  • For all potential things to exist a being of pure actuality had to exist, the unmoved mover
christianity and aristotle
Christianity and Aristotle
  • Theologians combined the concept of the unmoved mover and the Hebrew religion to conceive the Christian God as a conscious entity
  • Aristotle must have been divinely inspired
christian church and science
Christian Church and Science
  • Aristotle became the final authority on all worldly affairs–scientific exploration no longer necessary
  • True knowledge can only be gained by ignoring sensory information
  • These bodily functions are the source of most human problems - similar to Plato, but different
  • These problems can only be solved by a faith in God
end of roman era beginning of the dark ages
End of Roman Era Beginning of “the Dark Ages”
  • In Europe, Christianity controlled all philosophical thought and the behavior of the people
  • Aristotle the authority for all non-theological thought
  • Greek and Roman writings were lost or destroyed mostly by neglect
return of science latter part of middle ages
Return of Science – Latter Part of Middle Ages
  • The works of Greeks and Romans still important to Islamic cultures and there works were translated into Arabic
  • Islam spread across northern Africa and the Mediterranean
  • Bringing these works had come back to Western Europe
return of science latter part of middle ages15
Return of Science – Latter Part of Middle Ages
  • Reintroduction of Greek and Roman ideas led to a renewed interest in philosophy and science
  • Served as a precursor to the Renaissance period and beginning of modern science
  • Attention shifted from being God centered to being human centered – use observation to learn about nature and the world
4 themes of renaissance humanism
4 Themes of Renaissance Humanism
  • 1. curiosity about human abilities and accomplishments
  • 2. a desire to make religion more individualistic and less ceremonial
  • 3. greater interest in the past
  • 4. opposition to the mindless support of Aristotle as the authority on all things science
renaissance period
Renaissance Period
  • Movement to science strengthened by findings that much conventional wisdom was wrong
  • Copernicus – change from a geocentric view of the universe to a heliocentric view
  • Galileo and British scientists advanced the use of science and the scientific method
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