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MUFS at agro-ecological landscape level Setting strategic functional priorities and fostering multiple uses. Gerardo E. van Halsema Centre for Water and Climate Wageningen University based on GAWI & Netherlands-Vietnam WFE Partnership. Multiple ecosystem services.

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MUFS at agro-ecological landscape levelSetting strategic functional priorities and fostering multiple uses

Gerardo E. van Halsema

Centre for Water and Climate

Wageningen University

based on GAWI & Netherlands-Vietnam WFE Partnership

multiple ecosystem services
Multiple ecosystem services
  • MUFS are defined in terms of ecosystem services (MA):
    • provisioning services (agriculture / food provision)
    • regulating services (flood protection, water retention, water purification, carbon sequestration etc)
    • cultural services (tourism, recreational, spiritual)
    • supporting services (nutrient cycles, pest control)
    • biodiversity
iwrm mufs
  • Supply management focus of IWRM distracts from MUSF:
    • focus on meeting multiple demands from multiple sectors, uses & functions polemicizes distribution among single uses
  • Multiple uses of water are fact of life when considering the resources base:
  • water is shared and passed on along the ‘water chain’ and depleted, polluted, retained or diverted by various uses
    • eg forest & wetland ecosystems, hydropower & industry, inland & coastal fisheries, rangeland, floodplains, (irrigated) agriculture, urban waste water etc.
  • one use affects & interacts with the other use – negatively or positively
  • focus on water use, and specifically on interactions of water use with other uses
enhancing multiple ecosystem services
Enhancing multiple ecosystem services
  • Sustainable water use = assuring a balance in ecosystem services
    • diminishing/mitigating negative water interactions of agriculture
    • fostering non—provisioning services and focus on positive water interactions for agricultural uses
  • Functional & strategic approach to ecosystem services at the landscape level
    • assign primary functions to ecosystem services (agriculture, flood control, biodiversity)
    • devise criteria for multiple use of “secondary” ecosystem services (within ecological boundary of primary function)
agro ecosystems in coastal vietnam
Agro-ecosystems in Coastal Vietnam

Setting the scene:

Sectoral (mono) water uses have been intensified:

  • irrigated rice
  • boom in shrimp cultivation in brackish water zone
    • severe pollution
    • degradation of aquatic ecosystem
    • production declines in mono shrimp culture
  • degradation of coastal (mangrove) forest
    • loss of biodiversity
agro ecosystems in coastal vietnam1
Agro-ecosystems in Coastal Vietnam

Future challenges of Climate Change (Vietnam in top 5):

    • rising see levels
    • typhoon storm surges
    • higher intensity rainfall
    • higher peak river flows
  • => Increasing demands for regulating services/functions:
    • coastal defense
    • water retention & flood protection (brackish & fresh)
agro ecosystems in coastal vietnam2
Agro-ecosystems in Coastal Vietnam

II Fresh Flood Rice/Aquaculture

I Fresh Rice/Aquaculture

III Brackish Aquaculture/fisheries

IV Saline/Brackish Forest/Aquaculture/fisheries

mufs in coastal vietnam
MUFS in Coastal Vietnam

Four strategic functional sub-systems with multiple use:

  • Irrigated rice:
    • 1st: food (rice & fresh fish culture)
    • 2nd: fresh water supply brackish zone (salt & circulation)
    • 3rd: rainwater retention
  • Fresh floodplains:
    • 1st: flood protection
    • 2nd: food (rice & fresh fish culture)
  • Brackish zone:
    • 1st : food (aquaculture through poly-culture and mangrove filters)
    • 2nd : salt water retention
    • 3rd : biodiversity
  • Coastal forest:
    • 1st : coastal protection
    • 2nd : biodiversity
    • 3rd : food (fishery and polyculture)
mufs in coastal vietnam1
MUFS in Coastal Vietnam
  • Focus on the water interactions between the uses/functions
    • manage as a whole;
  • BUT: innovate multiple water use techniques & practices that support the water interactions
mufs in malawi wetlands
MUFS in Malawi wetlands

R.J. Bakema, G.W. Howard and A. P. Wood