Chapter 9 Forest Biomes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 9 Forest Biomes

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  1. Chapter 9Forest Biomes Covers 30% of the Earth Contains 75 % of Earth’s Biomass

  2. 9.1 Coniferous Forest • Limited to the Northern Hemisphere (far from the equator) • High latitudes (closer to the Arctic) • Summers are warm and last 2-5 months • Winters are long and very cold • 40-200 cm of precipitation (as rain and snow) per year

  3. 9.1 Coniferous Forest • Coniferous means “cone bearing” • Conifers (coniferous trees) producer seeds in cones • Leaves have adapted to conserve water by producing long-thin with a thick waxy coat called needles

  4. 9.1 Coniferous Forest • Tree is also a cone-shaped - the needles allow heavy snow to fall through the branches • Conifers are “evergreen” they do not loose all their leaves in winter but keep them all year round

  5. 9.1 Coniferous Forest • Examples of conifers: Hemlock, Spruce, Cedar, Pine • Forests are not diverse – usually only one or two types of pine. • Soil is poor and very acidic Scotch Pine Eastern Cedar Blue Spruce Hemlock

  6. 9.1 Coniferous Forest • Plants: Ferns, Lichens and Sphagnum moss grown on forest floor • Animals: Large herbivores – moose, elk • Small herbivores – beaver, snowshoe hare, squirrel, mouse, blue jay • Carnivores – grizzly bear, wolves, fox, weasel, lynx, owl, eagle

  7. 9.2 Deciduous Forest • Deciduous tree sheds its leaves during the winter • Temperature ranges from 30oC in summer to -30oC in winter • Precipitation 50 – 300 cm (rain/snow) per year • Forests found in the temperate zones – mostly Europe and North America Maple tree

  8. 9.2 Deciduous Forest • Growing season is 6 months long • Sunlight is used by chlorophyll in the leaves to make food • Autumn has shorter days – chlorophyll fades –other pigments show through • All pigments fade, leaves dry up and fall off tree

  9. 9.2 Deciduous Forest • Deciduous forest has 4 layers: • Canopy – top layer • Understory – third layer • Shrubs – second layer • Floor – bottom • Lots of biodiversity so lots of organic matter in the soil (humus-Ch 8)

  10. 9.2 Deciduous Forest • Food web has many organisms: • Decomposers (fungi and bacteria) • Insects (bees, flies) and invertebrates (worms) • Herbivores (deer, rabbits, mice) • Carnivores (mountain lions, wolves, eagles, owls)

  11. 9.2 Deciduous Forest • Human activity has shrunk the vast area that was the temperate deciduous forest. • Two reasons: rich soil for farming and the trees for wood, fuel and paper • Replanting trees does not restore the forest ecosystem

  12. 9.3 Rain Forest • Tropical zone is located at or near the equator. • Direct rays from the sun keep temperatures warm 25oC or higher • Growing season is 12 months • Precipitation 100-450 cm of rain a year

  13. 9.3 Rain Forest • Dense canopy of evergreen broadleaf trees • Contains 70-90% of all species on Earth • Only 6% on the Earth’s surface • 40% of the Earth’s biomass • Most biodiverse biome

  14. 9.3 Rainforest • Several levels: • Emergent trees- top layer, 99% sunlight (50-60 m) • Upper canopy – next layer – less than 1% filtered sunlight • Lower canopy – third layer, less than 1% filtered sunlight • Understory – fourth layer, dense shade • Forest floor – little or no sunlight

  15. 9.3 Rainforest • Top soil is thin – 99% of available nutrients in only 5 cm of top layer soil • Tree roots are shallow and trees develop extra roots - Buttresses - to support the immense height • Dead organic matter decomposes and is recycled quickly

  16. 9.3 Rainforest • Most activity takes place in the canopy layer • Many rainforest organisms never touch the ground • Vast diversity of plant life leads to vast diversity of animals • Habitats vary from tree to tree and level to level • Complex food webs with many species interactions

  17. 9.3 Rainforest • Greatest biodiveristy for plants, animals and insects • Many species haven’t even been discovered yet • Fungus beetle, toucans and howler monkeysspend their time in theupper canopy • Blue bird-of-paradise travels from the lower canopy to the forest floor • Margay cat hunts understory and forest floor • Tapir lives on the forest floor

  18. 9.3 Rainforest Deforestation