Chapter 1 and 2 Early America
Native Americans 5000 B.C. • Hunter gatherers in Northern Mexico developed wild grass into corn. • Size of a penny • Nomadic hunters began to settle and raise corn.
Great Early Groups- 1200 B.C. • 1200 b.c • The Pueblo People • Located on the Rio Grande • Constructed irrigation systems to water cornfields • Constructed multi-storied, terraced buildings.
100 A.D. • The Mound Builders • Location: Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi Valley. • Lived from about 3,000 years ago until the 1700s. • Most Native Americans • Living in small, scattered groups. • Loved the physical world and did not want to alter it.
The Great Serpent Mound The Serpent Mound, is not haunted in the classical sense. No vengeful ghost walks there at midnight (as far as anyone can tell); no axe murders are reenacted when the moon is full. But to the ancient Indians who built it, the great effigy mound definitely was a spiritual place.
Question: How Were Mounds Made? • Imagine groups of workers toiling from dawn to dusk, gathering baskets of dirt. They carry their burdens to a clearing, dump the soil, and tamp it down with their feet. As the days pass they retrace their footsteps time after time until a shape emerges and begins to grow. An earthen mound is born.
Question: What did they look like? • The shapes of mounds vary. • They can be flat-topped pyramids, rounded domes, or barely perceptible rises on the landscape. • Mounds can stand alone or be in groups of as many as 20 or more. • Some mounds are arranged around broad plazas, while others are connected by earthen ridges.
Question: What was the purpose of the mound? • The 1st mounds were burial grounds. • They also found shells from the Gulf of Mexico and turquoise from the South west. • Some mounds were used for religious ceremonies.
This image was taken from Henry Clyde Shetrone's book The Mound-Builders, 1930. The figure depicted here is the first known attempt to portray the builders of the ancient mounds as they appeared in life. • What happened to them?
Mound Builders • 1700s-Mississippians had died from disease they caught from Europeans.
European Exploration of the Americas 1492-1700
Question? The year is 1510. You live in a European port town and have heard exciting tales about mysterious lands across the sea. Would you join a voyage of exploration? Why?
Spain vs. Portugal • 1493: Spain and Portugal wanted a ruling to who would control the lands. • Pope Alexander VI ruled • Line of Demarcation East: Portugal West: Spain
Spain vs. Portugal • King John Mad-favored Spain • June 1494: Treaty of Tordesillas • Portugal: Eastern South America • Spain: Mexico
European Countries Goals 1. Spread Christianity beyond Europe. 2. Expand their empires. 3. Become Rich.
Mercantilism • Goal: Increase money in the country’s treasury by creating a balance in trade. • Mines: produce gold/silver • Crops=CASH
European Explorers 1. Amerigo Vespucci 2. Vasco Nunez Balboa 3. Ferdinand Magellan
Invasion of Mexico • Conquistador: Hernando Cortes • 1519 Mexico • Aztec Emperor: Montezuma • Cortez=Aztec God • Sent gifts of gold What do you think the Spanish thought of the gifts?
Invasion of Mexico • Spanish marched to the Aztec capital • Received by great ceremonies • Stayed in the great palaces • Took Montezuma captive • Aztecs Rebelled! • “Sad Night”
Fall of the Aztecs • 1-year later Spanish regrouped • Small pox • Aug 1521 Aztecs were defeated. • Mexico City • Inca Empire fall
Seeds of Change Broken spears lie in the roads; we have torn our hair in our grief. The house are roofless now, and their walls are red with blood. . . We have pounded our hands in despair against the adobe walls, for our inheritance, our city, is lost and dead. --Aztec Poet
Why were the Spanish able to conquer strong empires? • Diseases • Spanish were excellent soldiers and sailors • Great weapons • Made allies • Acted brutally
Spanish continued to search for riches told in Native American stories.
1492 A.D. • Christopher Columbus persuaded the King and Queen of Spain to give him three ships. • He was trying to find a western route to India. He sailed for six weeks before sighting the Bahamas on October 12, 1492.
Two Worlds Collide • The plants and animals of the Old and New World had been separated for thousands of years. • New World Crops • -Tobacco • -Corn • -Beans • -Tomatoes • -Potato • These crops revolutionized the European diet. 3/5 of the crops grown around the world originated in the Americas.
1493 • Columbus returned to the Caribbean with 17 ships loaded with Old World animals. The Horse would completely change many Native American cultures.
The Ultimate Weapon: Germs • Europeans brought diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, and malaria with them to the New World. • These diseases quickly devastated Native American populations. • Some Native American slaves would knead their own infected blood into their master’s bread to try to infect them.
The Planting of English America1585 • Sir Walter Raleigh and a group of settlers landed on Roanoke Island (North Carolina). • Raleigh established the settlement then returned to England. • When Raleigh returned to Roanoke, the settlers had disappeared. They became known as “The Lost Colony.” • England’s population was growing explosively. In 1550 the population was 3 million. In 1600 the population was 4 million. • An economic depression hit England in the late 1500s and as a result, English farmers were unable to pay the rent on the land they farmed. Landlords then began to force farmers off their land. • Many began to look to the New World as an escape or a refuge.
1606 • The Virginia Company of London received a charter from King James I for a settlement in the New World. • The company came seeking gold and the colonists were threatened with abandonment if they didn’t strike it rich for the company. • Few investors in the company’s colony were interested in long-term settlement. • The Virginia Company Charter guaranteed settlers the same rights they would enjoy in England. • Other colonies followed this pattern as well.
Late 1606 • Three ships of the Virginia Company land near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. Colonists moved northward up the James River and established Jamestown on May 24, 1607.
Hard Times • Early years in Jamestown were a nightmare. • First 40 of the colonists died coming to America. • Those who made it: • Died from Disease, Starvation, Malnutrition • Wasted a lot of time searching for gold. • Men were not accustomed to fend for themselves.
1608 • Captain John Smith • He was placed in charge of the colony. Smith had a hardnosed approach to the colonists. He said, • “He who shall not work, shall not eat.” The colonists quickly responded to Smith’s subtle leadership approach.
Captain John Smith Disney Real Life
December 1608 • -Captain Smith was kidnapped and subjected to a mock execution by Chief Powhatan. • -Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas, “saved” Smithfrom execution. The execution was done to show Powhatan’s power and also to show his desire for peace with the English. • Show clips from the movie…..
Sorry Guys!!! Disney Real Life
Change in Leadership Tactics • Lord De La Warr assumed leadership in the Jamestown colony. • Had a game plan for dealing with the Indians • New Policy • Allow English troops to raid Indian villages, burn houses, cornfields, and to confiscate provisions. • First years of this policy caused the First Anglo-Powhatan war. • In the end the Indians were banished from their lands.
Virginia and Tobacco • John Rolf • Perfected a method of raising and curing tobacco. • Jamestown began planting. • Tobacco was popular in Europe.
1619 • Virginia colony set up the House of Burgesses. • Its goal was to pass laws for the colony. • First step towards England’s independence.
1642 • Sir William Berkley • Came to Virginia to serve as governor. • Became popular • Organized a force that ended the Second Anglo-Powhatan War. • Tried to protect the Indians. • Problem was the population growth. • 1660-40,000 • Pressing further west. • Will have clashes over the land.
Bacon’s Rebellion • 1673 • Nathaniel Bacon • Western Virginia Farmer. • Disagreed with Indian policy. • Issues: • Mad at not being allowed in the governor’s inner circle. • Not being granted a piece of the governor’s lucrative fur trade.
Bacon’s Rebellion • 1675 • Band of Indians raided a western plantation and killed a white servant. • Angry whites struck back. • Indians responded with more raids and killed more white plantation owners. • Bacon and others defied the governor and began to attack the Indians. • Bacon was dismissed and also his associated rebels.
Bacon’s Rebellion • Bacon led his rebellion into Jamestown. • Led the army twice • First time: He won a temporary pardon from the governor • Second time: He burned the city and drove the governor into exile. • Suddenly: Bacon will die of dysentery. • Berkley came back and signed a peace treaty with the Indians.
Importance of Bacon’s Rebellion • It showed the continuing struggle to define the boundary between Indian and white lands. • It showed the English settlers were unwilling to abide by agreements with Indians and that the Indians were unwilling to allow further white settlement on their lands. • Most important: • It showed the potential for instability in the colony’s large population of free, landless men.
The West Indies and Sugar • Mid 1600’s • England Gained control of many Caribbean Islands. • Foundation of the Economy was Sugar. • Very labor intensive • The use of Slaves • By 1700 • Blacks outnumbered white settlers. • Four to one in the islands. • Devised formal law codes.
The Northern Colonies • Religion: • Played a major part in the lives of the colonists who settled in the northern colonies • Religious group that led the settlements were Puritans. • Puritans: • Were a break off from Protestants. • Followed reformer John Calvin. • Beliefs: • God was all powerful • Humans were wicked • God knew who was going to heaven and hell • Called them “The Elect” • Good works could not even save you. • Always sought for signs of conversion. • They were told to lead sanctified lives
Founding of Plymouth Colony • Early 1600’s • King James began to take steps to force the Puritans to leave England. • 1608 • Group left England and settled in the Netherlands. • 12 years the Puritans began to be worried about the Dutchification of their children. • ???? • Needed to move • Children would be thrust down to Hell. • They set sail in 1620.
Founding of Plymouth Colony • Group of 120 • Sailed on the Mayflower • Drew up a Mayflower Compact • Agreed to strict laws • One of the earliest constitutions • First step towards self governments. • Winter 1620-1621 • More settlers arrived after the Mayflower to settle in Plymouth colony. • First winter only 44/102 survived • Fall 1621 • Enjoyed a plentiful harvest • Celebrated the first Thanksgiving that year. • Plymouth later merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691.