The periodic table
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The Periodic Table. Families of Elements. What we will learn…. The names of five chemical families Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Transition metals Halogens Noble gases. What we will learn…. The location of the families on the Periodic Table. The Periodic Table.

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The periodic table

The Periodic Table

Families of Elements


What we will learn
What we will learn…

  • The names of five chemical families

    • Alkali metals

    • Alkaline earth metals

    • Transition metals

    • Halogens

    • Noble gases


What we will learn1
What we will learn…

  • The location of the families on the Periodic Table



What we will learn2
What we will learn…

  • Key chemical and physical properties of the families

Cutting Na

Mg burning


What we will learn3
What we will learn…

  • Definition and Examples of Chemical Properties

    • valence number

    • reactivity

      • with water

      • with a base

      • with an acid

    • behavior in solvents

    • pH

    • heat of combustion

    • flammability

    • radioactivity

Mg burning


What we will learn4
What we will learn…

  • Definition and Examples of Physical Properties

    • state

    • color

    • smell

    • melting point

    • hardness

    • malleability

    • density

    • opacity

    • conductivity

Cutting Na


What we will learn5
What we will learn…

  • Key vocabulary


Families
Families

  • Families (definition): groups of elements that have similar chemical properties.


Chemical properties
Chemical Properties

Chemical property (definition): characteristic shown by a substance when it reacts with another substance during a chemical reaction and changes in composition forming a new product

reactant(s) product(s)



Alkali metals li na k rb cs fr
Alkali Metals(Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr)

  • Most reactive family of metals

    • Group 1: only 1 valence electron

      • (+1 ion, or cation)

    • Never found free in nature

    • Kept in mineral oil or

      inert gas in lab


Alkali metals li na k rb cs fr1
Alkali Metals(Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr)

  • Often form ionic compounds with nonmetals

    • white metallic solids soluble in water


Alkali metals li na k rb cs fr2
Alkali Metals(Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr)

  • Very reactive with nonmetals, especially Halogens like chlorine

  • Very reactive with oxygen (form oxides)

  • Very reactive with water (hydroxides)


Alkali metals li na k rb cs fr3
Alkali Metals(Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr)

  • Hydroxides and oxides formed react with water to form basic (/alkaline) solutions

    2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2

    Mythbusters:

    Alkaline Metal Explosion


Alkali metals li na k rb cs fr4
Alkali Metals(Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr)

  • Metals (but not always ‘typical’ metals*)

    • Good conductors of heat/electricity

    • Malleable and ductile

    • Solid at room temperature

      • M.P. and B. P. lower than most metals*

    • All soft (can be cut with a knife) and shiny silver and lighter (less dense) than other metals (Li, Na and K float on water)*


Alkali earth metals be mg ca sr ba ra
Alkali Earth Metals(Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra)

  • 2nd most reactive family of metals

    • Group 2: only 2 valence electrons

      • (+2 ion, or cation)

    • Never found free in nature


Alkali earth metals be mg ca sr ba ra1
Alkali Earth Metals(Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra)

  • Form ionic compounds with nonmetals

    • especially with Halogens

  • React with oxygen (basic oxides)

  • Most react with water

    (alkaline hydroxides)

    Calcium + waterCaF2


Alkali earth metals be mg ca sr ba ra2
Alkali Earth Metals(Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra)

  • Metals

    • Similar properties to alkali metals

      • Electrical conductors

      • Malleable and ductile

      • Shiny Silvery white solids

      • But harder and more

        dense with higher M.P.

        and B.P. than group 1


Transition metals
Transition Metals

  • 21 (Scandium) through 29 (Copper)

  • 39 (Yttrium) through 47 (Silver)

  • 57 (Lanthanum) through 79 (Gold)

  • 89 (Actinium)

    and all higher numbers


Transition metals1
Transition Metals

  • Have special electron rules

    • Can use two outermost shells to bond with other elements

      • Can bond with many elements in a variety of shapes

  • Range of oxidation states

    • +2 (unless otherwise noted)

      • Cu +2

      • Cu IV +4


Transition metals2
Transition Metals

  • Properties vary but most …

    • have lower reactivity

      • Don’t react quickly with H2O or O2

    • form brightly colored compounds


Transition metals3
Transition Metals

  • Properties vary but most are…

    • Very good conductors of heat/electricity

    • Malleable and ductile

    • Hard, tough and strong

    • Lustrous and shiny

    • High M.P.

    • High density


The halogen family f cl br i at
The Halogen Family(F, Cl, Br, I, At)


The halogen family f cl br i at1
The Halogen Family(F, Cl, Br, I, At)

  • Most reactive family of nonmetals

    • Group 17: 7 valence electrons

      • (-1 anion)

    • Never found free in nature

      • Form diatomic molecules


The halogen family f cl br i at2
The Halogen Family(F, Cl, Br, I, At)

  • Form both ionic and covalent bonds (compounds and molecules)

  • ionic compounds with metals

    • “salt formers”

  • covalent compounds with nonmetals

    • Very reactive with group 1 and 2 metals

      • Very reactive with hydrogen


The halogen family f cl br i at3
The Halogen Family(F, Cl, Br, I, At)

  • Nonmetals

    • Poor conductors of heat & electricity

    • Crumbly and brittle (when solid)

    • Range of states of matter at RT:

      • solid (I2)

      • liquid (Br2)

      • gas (F2 , Cl2)

    • M.P. and B. P. are low

    • Characteristic colors and odors

    • Toxic or poisonous


The noble gases he ne ar kr xe rn
The Noble Gases(He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn)

  • Unreactive (stable) family of gases

    • Group 18: all have full outer shells

      • 2 valence electrons for Helium

      • 8 valence electrons for all others

    • Always found free in nature

      • Do not form compounds

        • Some Xe compounds have been formed, but they are not very stable

      • monatomic


The noble gases he ne ar kr xe rn1
The Noble Gases(He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn)

  • Nonmetals

    • Colorless, odorless, tasteless gases at R.T. (Earth’s atmosphere)

    • nonflammable

    • Very low B.P. and M.P.


Hydrogen
Hydrogen

  • Hydrogen

    • properties of both group 1 and 17

      • typically shown listed with group 1

    • non-metal

      • lightest element

      • Least dense element

      • diatomic gas (RT)

      • colorless, odorless, and

        tasteless

      • highly flammable


Hydrogen water former
Hydrogen “water-former”

  • Hydrogen

    • Reacts with elements and other substances (at temperatures > RT)

      • Can donate (+1 cation), accept (-1 anion), or share its electron


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