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What is Anthropology? • Anthropology is the broad study of humankindaround the world and throughout time. • It is concerned with both the biological and the cultural aspects of humans.
There are four main subdivisions (areas) in the study of Anthropology: • Physical Anthropology • Archeology • Cultural Anthropology • Linguistic Anthropology
We will focus on the following in this course… Physical Anthropology: Cultural Anthropology: Definition and Aspects of Culture Race as a Social Construct Race and Adaptation Participation/Observation Anthropologists: Jane Goodall Franz Boas Margaret Mead • Theory of Evolution • Origin of Humans • Primatology • Evolutionary Timeline • Genetic Inheritance • Physical Adaptations • Anthropologists: • Darwin • Leakey's
Examine the photographs. Donald Johanson and “Lucy” Jane Goodall observing Chimpanzees
Read the textbook on the discovery of Australopithecus Ramidus(pg. 41), Australopithecus Afarensis(pg. 38), and HomosapiensNeandertalensis “Neanderthal ” (pg. 42). In point form, record the importance of the discovery of these human species. • Define and explain the significance of “bipedalism.”
Debate about whether they are our direct ancestors or lost out to modern humans in survival of the fittest. Interbred with humans. Burial site show abstract thinking (spirituality). Made and used complex tools and lived in caves. Shows that our human ancestors were walking upright much earlier than once thought. Walked upright and could also move in the trees. Adult human ancestor. Walked upright and had the ability to speak. Bipedalism: standing upright with our lower limbs for support and locomotion. It is the single feature that separates us from closest relatives (chimpanzees)
Humans and Primates: Our Unique Connection • Similarities to Primates: • Manoeuvre arms flexibly in all directions • Nails instead of claws • Opposable thumb to grasp • Fast responding nerves from brain to hand • Rely largely on eyesight • Can judge distances – 3D Vision
Humans and Primates: Our Unique Connection • Characteristics Unique to Humans • Walk upright “bipedalism” • Largest, most developed brain • Form close, long-lasting relationships • Humans communicate complex ideas through spoken language (can teach their young) • Can think critically and abstractly
Interesting Lectures • What separates us from chimpanzees? • Why aren’t chimps still evolving into humans?