UPR-R(river) P(rock) X CDR, February , 2010 Presentation Version 2.1
Mission Overview • Mission Statement In representation of the University of Puerto Rico, as a team we intend to get involved in the pilot project RockSat X 2011 to expand our knowledge and that of others in aerospace related areas.Carefully selected, the experiment that will be carried out includes mass spectroscopy to analyze molecular species and their respective partial pressures in near space. In this way we will contribute with valuable information for interstellar travel and advances benefiting the space bound crew to collect and replenish essential resources such as water and fuel.
Mission Overview Carrying out this experiment involves a set of minimum requirements. Our main tool will be two mass spectrometers (Residual Gas Analyzer, RGA) that will identify molecular species from 1 to 200 amu. Computers need to be modified and communication established with them by telemetry. This is one of the most important requisites needed to carry out the project properly. It is also necessary to have a basic knowledge of science in the areas of chemistry and physics to understand several events/concepts that will be taking place.
Mission Overview • In this experiment, we expect to determine the abundance of different types of gas molecules, that exist in the outer atmosphere, and near to outer space, using mass spectroscopy. • We want to encourage future space voyagers to use gas molecules present in outer space to capture and synthesize necessary resources, such as water and fuel.
Mission Overview • Our data would be used as preliminary information about what type of molecular gases are found, at what altitude, and with what density. • Having the basic data about gases in outer space, scientists can develop and apply mass spectrometry mechanisms for the capture and separation of specific species of gas molecules, or atoms to make the necessary resources needed in long distance space flights.
Team But we insist, We ARE a team!!!
Mass Spectrometry [MS] • The Mass Spectrometry (MS) is an instrumental analytical method used to determine atomic masses using the combined properties of mass and electric charge to detect and measure the relative abundances of atomic and molecular species. The instrument will also measure the total amount of gas and the partial pressures of the species studied could be also be determined. • Identify substances by electric charge/mass ratio: • Positively charge the molecules (ionize them). • Accelerate the ions through an alternating electromagnetic field that acts as a filter. • Detect the number of charged species vs. atomic mass.
How the instrument works: • Electro-Magnetic Filter • Some Advantage • Small and lighter ionizer and quadruple • More flexible to modifies to this experimentation • Magnetic Filter • Some limitations: • Big and Heavy magnet • Limited Flexibility
How the instrument works (1): • Step 1 Create the ions • Measure the amount of the gas • Measure the amount of the electrons that pass through by the source grid • Measure the partial pressure • Produce a beam of electrons [70eV] creating ions of the species • Create a magnetic potential to accelerate the ions through the quadruple
How the instrument works (2): • Step 2 Filter the ions • A quadruple mass filter consisting of an arrangement of 4 metal rods with a time-varying electrical voltage of the proper amplitude and frequency applied • This mechanism helps us to select which ions will pass by his charge which is • relative to their masses. • The instrument can be program to scan only selected mass, applying a specific current, move and measure only the mass that we want to measure. • Or can scan all the mass to 1 – 200 amu and see what we have in the time.
How the instrument works (3): • Step 3 Detect the filtered ions • The ions that pass through the mass filter are focused toward a Faraday cup and the current is measured with a sensitive ammeter. • The resultant signal being proportional to the partial pressure of the particular ion species passed by the mass filter.
How the instrument works (4): • Step 4 Amplify the signal • Amplifies the current that the faraday cup receive approximately 10-14 amps. • The ions striking the B/A detector wire produce a comparatively larger current, on the order of 10-9 amps at 3.3 x 10-7Torr.
2011 CoDR Expected results • MS outputs results in an integrated mass spectrum with all identifiable species represented by characteristic fragments of specific mass/charge ratio in specific proportions. • Analyze the results to know what species are in the lower to outer space. • Verify atmospheric composition. • Identify possible sources of energy and/or useful materials.
2011 CoDR Concentration of N2, O2, O3, He Expected gases in our atmosphere N2, O2, Ar, CO2 He, Ne, Kr, Xe, H2, N2O CH4, O3, H2O, CO, NO2, NH3, SO2, H2S Aurora (80km to 160km) 17
2011 CoDR From the Literature There are a lots of species that we expect to find, all of them in different concentration in function of altitude. In a mass spectrum ionic species are represented by their mass/charge ratio in the x-axis and their relative abundance and the y-axis. From the literature we found an example of a combined mass spectrum of several species. Mass Spectrum (log intensity scale) of gases in the atmosphere of Mars. (MCLafferty, 1993) 18
Other examples of single species’ mass spectrum- Ideal cases: Mass spectrum for methane (CH3), bethane (C2H4) and an isotope of hydrocarbons (C6H7). (MCLafferty, 1993) Mass spectrum for bithylene (C2H3) and isotope of hydrocarbons (C4H7). (MCLafferty, 1993) Mass spectrum for neon (Ne) and its isotopes.
Now, why two Mass Spectrums? • Analyzing the expected results, we conclude that we need two different MS. In the first one, it’s quadruple will measures all masses between 1 and 200 amu, to see all the species and their fragments that are in the outer space. In the second one, it’s quadruple will measures just the masses that we select to look, programming the instrument. This will help to verify the composition of the atmosphere .
Examples of possible species to be found in the atmosphere, relative masses for molecular and atomic components:
NRLMSISE-00 – Model of the Atmosphere NRLMSISE-00 is an empirical, global model of the Earth's atmosphere from ground to space. It models the temperatures and densities of the atmosphere's components. According to the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory website, NRLMSISE-00 is the standard for international space research. • Model outputs: • Helium Number density • Oxygen(O) Number density • Oxygen (O2) Number density • Nitrogen (N) Number density • Nitrogen (N2) Number density • Argon (Ar) Number density • Hydrogen (H) Number density • total mass density • Anomalous oxygen Number density • Exospheric temperature • temperature at altitude • Model inputs: • Year and day • time of day • altitude • geodetic latitude • geodetic longitude • local apparent solar time • 81 day average of F10.7 solar flux • daily F10.7 solar flux for previous day • Daily magnetic index http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NRLMSISE-00
Example of NRLMSISE-00 output http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NRLMSISE-00
Example ConOps t ≈ 1.7 min Altitude: 120 km ReScan, Deployment of secong MS Altitude t ≈ 4.0 min Altitude: 120 km Start recovery sequences Apogee t ≈ 2.8 min Altitude: ≈160 km t ≈ 1.3 min Altitude: 95 km Star Ionizing, Mass Spectra t ≈ 4.5 min Altitude: 95 km Retract Complete End of Orion Burn and Filaments ON t ≈ 0.6 min Altitude: 60 km t ≈ 5.5 min Chute Deploys -G switch triggered -All systems on t = 0 min t ≈ 15 min Splash Down
Block Diagram Primary Components of the functional diagram. Legend
Trade Studies • Embedded x86 computer mainboard • VIA EPIA P820-12L Pico ITX Mainboard • VIA EITX-3001 Em-ITX • DC-DC Converter • Intelligent DC-DC converter with USB interface • I/O Board • RS-232 Relay Controller 4-Channel 5 Amp SPDT + 8-Channel 8/10-Bit A/D • RS-232 4-Channel Solid State Relay Controller + 8-Channel 8/10-Bit A/D • Data storage • OCZ Onyx Series OCZSSD1-1ONX32G 1.8" 32GB SATA II MLC Internal Solid State Drive
Trade Studies • For mainboard considering cost, number serial ports, power requirements and form factor, option A for the prototype will be VIA EITX-3001 Em-ITX. • For I/O Board considering cost, configuration options and form factor, option A for the prototype will be RS-232 Relay Controller 4-Channel 5 Amp SPDT + 8-Channel 8/10-Bit A/D which has more option for configuring the relay and has a smaller footprint.
Risk Matrix Risk 1 – Computer system crash during flight and data couldn’t be collected mission objectives couldn’t be completed. Risk 2 – A boom arm failure during deployment occurs and probe performs measurements inside the payload. Risk 3 – Telemetry error between x86computer and wallops leaving experiment data only on the payload storage which will have survive landing on the sea. Risk 4 – Power failure on some of the component making funtionability limited.
De-Scopes and Off-Ramps • The scope of our project haven’t changed. • So far all our mission statements will be done in our experiment. • Concerns(In order of importance) • Creation of the booms. • Will the Mass Spetrometer survive the vibration test mounted on the booms. • Additional power for the whole system
Mechanical Design Elements Mechanical Front view design
Materials Part List and Prices • x86 computer $88.99 ocz ssd http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16820227553&cm_re=ocz_ssd-_-20-227-553-_-Product • $369.00 via emitx motherboard http://www.e-itx.com/eitx-3001.html • control boards es solo uno tenemos dos opciones $124 RS-232 4-Channel Solid State Mixed SSR Relay Controller + 8-Channel 8/10-Bit A/D http://www.controlanything.com/Relay/Device/ADSSR4xPROXR_MIX • $124 RS-232 Relay Controller 4-Channel 5 Amp SPDT + 8-Channel 8/10-Bit A/D http://www.controlanything.com/Relay/Device/ADR45PROXR • DC-DC converter $59.95 Intelligent DC-DC converter with USB interface http://www.mini-box.com/DCDC-USB?sc=8&category=981
Electrical Design Elements • Power lines 10 and 11 are not shown connected to anything because this lines will power the boom arms motors which have not selected yet and because of this power requirement is to be determined • Relays R1-4 on the control board will be used to activate the boom arms to relays per boom.
Software Design Elements • Software development still at its beginning • Studying of the API’s of the payload hardware • Research how to use the telemetry interfaces to achieve better results • Analyzing which procedures are needed to control the payload and collect all data correctly
Analysis Results • What was analyzed? • Boom extension was a matter of importance because of the outgassing bubble of outgas created by the rocket and the equipment on it. • The Mass Spectrometer’s ionizer’s filament’s survival to the launch vibration conditions. • Strong payload structure to survive launch conditions