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SELECTING WOOD & LUMBER. Mandi Ba ñales April 2001 Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office . July, 2002. KINDS OF WOOD. Softwood comes from needle leaf, evergreen trees called conifers

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selecting wood lumber

SELECTING WOOD & LUMBER

Mandi Bañales

April 2001

Cal Poly San Luis Obispo

Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office

July, 2002

kinds of wood
KINDS OF WOOD
  • Softwood comes from needle leaf, evergreen trees called conifers
  • Hardwood comes from broadleaf trees that lose their leaves each fall season, called deciduous trees. Kinds of Woods
uses of softwood types
White pine – shelving, interior finish, exterior trim, and door frames

Yellow pine – benches, stairs, where semi-hard surface is desired

Fir – framing members, siding, sheathing, and gates

Redwood – posts, fences, patios, and siding

Cedar – fence posts, sills, and shingles

Spruce – aviation and musical instruments

Uses of Softwood Types
hardwood identification
Hardwood Identification

BIRCH

OAK

WALNUT

MAHAGONY

MAPLE

uses of hardwood types
Oak - used in floors, interior finish, barrels, furniture

Walnut – used for fine furniture, boat building, clock cases

Maple – used for floors, interior finish, furniture, and guitar necks

Mahogany – is used for fine furniture, boat interiors, pianos,

Birch – used for surface veneer on cabinets and doors, Furniture, high-grade joinery, high-grade plywood

Uses of Hardwood Types
log cutting method 1
Log Cutting Method #1
  • Slash sawing cuts a log so that the annular rings form an angle of less than 45 degrees with the surface of the lumber.
    • Softwood lumber cut in this fashion is referred to as flat-grained
    • Hardwood lumber cut in this fashion is referred to as plain-sawed
log cutting method 2
Quarter sawing cuts a log so that the annular rings form an angle of more than 45 degrees with the surface of the lumber.

Softwood lumber cut in this fashion is referred to as edge-grained

Hardwood lumber cut in this fashion is referred to as quarter-sawed

Log Cutting Method #2
finishes
FINISHES
  • Rough lumber comes directly from the sawmill unplaned and varying in dimensions from piece to piece
  • S2S - lumber surfaced on two sides-all pieces to have the same thickness, but varying widths
  • S4S – Lumber surfaced on four sides allowing exact dimension from piece to piece.
special notes for finishes
Special Notes for FINISHES
  • THE ACTUAL SIZES ARE ½ INCH LESS THAN THE NOMINAL SIZES!

Example: the actual size of a 2 x 4 is

Only1 1/2” x 3 1/2”

the basis of lumber grades
THE BASIS OF LUMBER GRADES

APPEARANCE AND

SOUNDNESS OF

WOOD

defect vs blemish
DEFECT VS. BLEMISH
  • A Lumber defect is an irregularity in or on the wood that reduces its strength, durability, or usefulness
  • A Lumber blemish is a defect that impairs only the wood’s appearance
common lumber defects
Knots

Holes

Splits

Shakes

Pitch pockets

Honey combing

Wane

Decay

Blue Stain

Warp

Common Lumber Defects
basic lumber grades
Select –

Grades A & B suitable for natural finishes

Grades C & D are suitable for paint finishes

Common –

Common #1, 2, and 3 are suitable for use without waste

Common # 4 and 5 are suitable for use permitting waste

Basic Lumber Grades
factors to consider when selecting lumber
Factors to Consider when Selecting Lumber
  • Quality construction does not require that all the lumber be of the best grade
  • Several grades of lumber may be appropriate in a single structure
  • Good economical construction requires the proper use of the lowest grade lumber suitable for the purpose