INTERNATIONAL PIPELINES LEGISATION & REGULATION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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INTERNATIONAL PIPELINES LEGISATION & REGULATION

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  1. INTERNATIONAL PIPELINES LEGISATION & REGULATION Arthur Dykes Consultant

  2. SOURCES OF INFORMATION • International Energy Agency surveys • International Gas Union technical committees • European Union e.g. Madrid Forum • Energy Information Administration • National sources e.g. FERC

  3. NETWORK LEGISLATION • Economic regulation • Technical regulation • Health, safety and environment regulation • Security

  4. KEY ELEMENTS OF ECONOMIC REGULATION(Deregulation, liberalisation) • Mandatory third party access to networks • Controls on prices/tariffs for non-competitive segments • Unbundling • Regulatory structure

  5. APPLICATION OF ECONOMIC REGULATION (1) • Electricity, gas, petroleum pipelines as well as other networks (telecommunications, transport) • Highly developed for gas and electricity • Petroleum pipelines less complicated as distribution and retail sales not included directly • Geographically: North & South America, EU, Australia, Asia, Africa


  6. APPLICATION OF ECONOMIC REGULATION (2) • Existing private industry – USA • New private industries – Northern Ireland • Privatisation of state monopolies – UK, Argentina • Regional gas industries – European Union • Federal systems – Australia • Industrialised/developing – USA, UK, Bolivia, Mozambique

  7. THIRD PARTY ACCESS • Regulated TPA • Explicit rules for requests • Set operational and financial conditions • Negotiated • Negotiations normally based on formal code & indicated prices, with arbitration mechanism • Phasing (derogations, eligible customers) • Open season (Bolivia/Brazil consortium)

  8. NON-COMPETITIVE SEGMENTS • Price control • Natural monopoly • Efficiency • Rate of return • Book value versus replacement value • Price cap e.g.Argentina • Adjusted for inflation 6 monthly • Reviewed every 5 years

  9. PRICE TRADE-OFFSCoal Gas Franchises (start 1849) • Gas companies wanted: • Eminent domain (servitudes); • Protection against competition; • Municipal contracts. • Municipalities wanted: • Reasonable prices; • Safety; • Obligation to supply. • Currently used to establish energy networks

  10. GENERAL PRINCIPLESOF REGULATION • Rule of law - appeal to the judiciary • Transparency – consultation & accessibility • Neutrality • Predictability and consistency • Independence – adequate skills, resources, information • Accountability – especially for general management

  11. UNBUNDLING • Vertical integration facilitates new projects • Vertically integration & competition • Denying or restricting access, raising prices, lowering service standards. • Phasing • Accounts and management • Operation and investment decisions • Ownership

  12. REGULATORY INDEPENDENCE • Ensures transparency and a level playing field • Regulatory capture: • By stakeholders (particularly monopolies), problem of information, selection, no financial interests or revolving door with industry • By politician – must comply with government policy (not instructions), irrevocable mandate

  13. INDEPENDENCE SAFEGUARDS • Fixed periods of appointment • No conflicts of interest – financial or revolving door • Stable and reliable funding • Competitive salaries • Transparent decision making process • Review by courts

  14. REGULATORS’ QUALIFICATIONS • “Integrity, competence, the ability to exercise independent judgement, and the strength to resist pressure are indispensable to regulators, while technical experience in the regulated industry is generally considered to be of secondary importance.” (Regulatory Institutions – IEA)

  15. ENERGY versus GAS REGULATORS • Energy regulators the norm in industrialised countries: • Better co-ordination (gas-fired power stations) • Cost effective • Better utilisation of resources • Gas regulators common in new industries: • Focused • Quick start

  16. IGU: AIMS OF REGULATORS • Transparency and efficiency; • Tariff mechanisms; • Ensuring non-discriminatory access; • Fostering competition; • Encouraging the growth of transport capacity and interconnections; • Promoting adequate infrastructure investment; • Contributing to long-term security of supply.

  17. PETROLEUM PIPELINESUSA • John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company formed a national petroleum monopoly, partly by controlling access to pipelines • The Hepburn amendment (1906) to ICA: • Interstate oil pipelines became common carriers with rate regulation • Gas and water pipelines were excluded

  18. COMMON CARRIERS • A pipeline company obliged by law to provide service to all interested parties without discrimination to the limit of the pipeline’s capacity. Once the pipeline’s capacity is reached the service must be offered to all shippers in proportion to the amounts tendered for shipment.

  19. OVER-BOOKING • In Canada the 3 700 km Interprovincial Pipeline (IPL) carries two thirds of western Canada’s oil production to eastern Canada • April 1995 shippers’ nominations were twice the oil production of western Canada • Penalties of $2.70/barrel imposed • Penalty funds used to lower overall tariffs, thus rewarding responsible nominators

  20. UK ADVICE TO INDIA ON PETROLEUM PIPELINES • All new petroleum pipelines on common carrier principle • Establish an independent regulator to: • Regulate tariff structure • Lay down technical standards • Promote the optimal utilisation of pipelines • Lay down safety and environmental standards

  21. SAFETY & ENVIRONMENT • USA – FERC does NOT oversee: • Construction of pipelines • Abandonment of services • Safety • Canada – National Energy Board oversees: • Construction of pipelines • Abandonment of services • Safety and environment

  22. USA RATE MAKING • Indexing: maximum rate set by cost of service or sworn affidavit. Rate adjusted annually by PPI-1 • Cost of service: revision of the index based on a “just and reasonable rate” • Settlement rate: all existing customers agree to a rate change • Market-based rates: the pipeline must not have significant market power