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Early Modern Era (1450-1750): The Protestant Reformation. What is the Protestant Reformation?. 1517-1648 The split (splintering) of Roman Catholicism into other Christian faiths End of religious unity in Western Europe. 4 Factors leading to Protestant Reformation.
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What is the Protestant Reformation? • 1517-1648 • The split (splintering) of Roman Catholicism into other Christian faiths • End of religious unity in Western Europe
4 Factors leading to Protestant Reformation 1. By end of Middle Ages, many criticize the corruption, wealth and power of Catholic Church • Indulgences, Simony, Personal Faith in God, Anti-Theocractic beliefs 2. Humanist ideas from the Renaissance conflict with religious authority of the Church
4 Factors leading to Protestant Reformation 3. Political leaders (kings, princes) wanted more power & money (Germany, England); Church was competition to their power 4. Scholars began to read the Bible; many disagreed with Church practices (printing press)
The Timeline of the Reformation • Early 1500s: Popes are accused of living luxuriously. Pope Leo X sought to raise money to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica; sold church positions (simony) & (forgiveness for sins) indulgences • 1517: German monk Martin Luther nailed 95 Theseson church door in Wittenberg (northern Germany) • Criticized simony, indulgences, other Church practices
The Timeline of the Reformation • 1520 - 21: Pope excommunicated Luther at the Diet of Worms (Germany) • 1520s: Luther declared a heretic and outlaw German prince hides Luther, while he translates Bible into German Creates new religion - Lutheranism
Martin Luther’s Message • Opposed selling indulgences b/c no one but God could forgive sins • Salvation by Faith alone only a strong belief in God can save someone, not their good works • Only need a Bible to have a relationship with God Pope and priest not important
Why Does the Protestant Reformation Spread? • Printing Press created by Johannes Gutenberg in 1450 Easier to write and print books increases literacy • Bible written in German, not Latin • Princes and Kings want more power (Germany and England)
Spread of Reformation to England • 1527: King Henry VIII petitioned Pope for divorce; Pope refused • 1534: Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy • Made king head of the English Church (Church of England) • King closed monasteries & convents, seized Catholic lands
Results of Protestant Reformation • Spread of new religions to England, Switzerland, Germany and the rest of Europe • Greater divide between Protestants and Catholics lead to 150 years of religious warfare • Catholic Counter-Reformation
Catholic Counter Reformation • What is it? Reaction of the Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation • Goal: Try to fix problems within Church to get back followers -> Council of Trent • “Bonfire of the Vanities” Savonarola • Reforms: • Inquisition (try to get rid of non-Catholics in certain regions – Spain, France, Italy) • New Religious Orders – Jesuits • Stricter rules for Catholic officials
More Results of the Protestant Reformation • Kings & rulers gained more political power from Germany • Catholic Church lost power, prestige, and wealth • Period of intolerance between Catholics and Protestants • Some create laws for religious tolerance • Edict of Nantes (France) – freedom to choose religion • Greater focus on Education focus on secular, not religious, ideas continues Renaissance humanism • Witch hunts throughout Europe
Homework Questions • 1). Explain what the Protestant Reformation is and how it affected Europe in the Early Modern Period. • 2). List the 4 reasons the Protestant Reformation occurred. Explain 2 of them in your own words. • 3). What are the 95 Theses? Specifically explain one complaint Martin Luther had against the Catholic Church. • 4). What happens to Martin Luther because of his 95 Theses? • 5). How did the Printing Press play an important role during the Protestant Reformation? • 6). Explain 2 reasons (don’t list) the Protestant Reformation spreads throughout Europe. • 7). Give 1 example of how the Protestant Reformation impacts a specific European nation. • 8). How does the Catholic Church respond to the Reformation? Give 2 specific examples of the Catholic Church’s response.