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Military Regimes. of Central and South America. 1. How many military coups were there in The Americas between 1960 and 1963?. 10 Military Coups. 2. Originally, what was the purpose of a coup?. To remove corrupt civilian politicians or to restore order.

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military regimes

Military Regimes

of Central and South America

1 how many military coups were there in the americas between 1960 and 1963
1. How many military coups were there in The Americas between 1960 and 1963?

10 Military Coups

2 originally what was the purpose of a coup
2. Originally, what was the purpose of a coup?

To remove corrupt civilian politicians

or to restore order

3 how did that change after fidel castro s coup in cuba
3. How did that change after Fidel Castro's coup in Cuba?

The coup was to prevent Cuban-style revolutions

and remove any communist sympathizers or insurgents

4 give 5 tactics military coups used to pacify the public and stop insurgents
4. Give 5 tactics military coups used to pacify the public and stop insurgents?
  • Incarcerate, torture and assassinate insurgents
  • Eliminated safe havens in civilian landscape
  • Reduce legal and civil rights of public
  • Suspension of democracy
  • Control the media
  • Outlaw unions
5 which army hunted down che guevara when did they find and execute him
5. Which army hunted down Che Guevara? When did they find and execute him?

Tracked down in 1967 by a special forces

unit of The Bolivian Army

slide7

6. While the Guerilla groups who fought the army were completely disorganized, who did the military think was behind the organization of these fractured groups?

Moscow

7 why did they think this
7. Why did they think this?

They believed Moscow wanted locations close to USA in order to place nuclear warheads within striking distance.

8 why did all the latin american military regimes act and look similar
8. Why did all the Latin American military regimes act and look similar?
  • Senior officers, generals and colonels all attended the same Inter-American Military system colleges.
  • Taught the belief that “civilian governments cannot control revolutionary threats.”
10 in many cases what form of government eventually developed because of these regimes
10. In many cases, what form of government eventually developed because of these regimes?

Dictatorships

11 what did the military governments do to attract foreign investment
11. What did the military governments do to attract foreign investment?

Lowered wages and outlawed unions

12 who supported these regimes to avoid more castro cuban style communist governments
12. Who supported these regimes to avoid more Castro-Cuban style communist governments?

The United States of America

13 what did they do to support these military governments
13. What did they do to support these military governments?
  • American Presidential support
  • Provide military supplies
  • Gave counterinsurgency training
1 why did the middle and upper class not approve of goulart
1. Why did the middle and upper class not approve of Goulart?

He initiated reforms to redistribute wealth

2 how many presidents did the military install after the coup of goulart
2. How many presidents did the Military install after the Coup of Goulart?

5 Presidents over 20 years

3 what term did marshal castelo branco use to explain the corruption during his rule
3. What term did Marshal CasteloBranco use to explain the corruption during his rule?

“Manipulated Democracy”

4 provide 4 anti democratic tactics instigated by the military in brazil through 1967
4. Provide 4 anti-democratic tactics instigated by the Military in Brazil through 1967.
  • Ended election of state government and city mayors
  • Dissolved Congress
  • Suspended “Habeas Corpus”
  • Tightened censorship
  • Ended civil rights
  • Started Violent Oppression
slide20
5. In 1969, who was put in power and what was the governments opposition required to do in order to remain safe?

General Emilia Medici

  • The opposition went underground

and began urban guerilla warfare.

6 what did the government do in turn
6. What did the government do in turn?
  • Attacked insurgents, their family and friends
  • Allowed private death squads to operate
2 what were the consequences of this increase
2. What were the consequences of this increase?

Unemployment increased for the poor

The rich got richer and the poor remained stagnant

2 why did the military agree to allowing civilian rule once again
2. Why did the military agree to allowing civilian rule once again?
  • Brazil was safe from revolution
  • Pressure on the government to return to civilian rule
  • Military Regime did not solve any of the the basic problems of poverty, illiteracy, poor healthcare, social class gaps and social injustice.
2 who was his vice president
2. Who was his vice president?

His wife, Isabel Peron

slide31
3. Before his death and his wife's removal, what was happening in urban Argentina to facilitate a military coup?
  • Urban guerillas were kidnapping foreign businessmen for ransom
  • Foreign investors were scared off and economy collapsed
1 how was the coup in argentina different than the one in brazil
1. How was the coup in Argentina different than the one in Brazil?

The military took over the country from the start,

not gradually.

2 who were the three military men responsible for the reconstruction of argentina
2. Who were the three military men responsible for the reconstruction of Argentina?

Jorge Videla, Orlando Agosti and Emilio Massera

3 what tactics were used to steer the nation along the path of order and security
3. What tactics were used to "steer the nation along the path of order and security"?
  • Military model imposed on court system
  • Opposition party was outlawed
  • Unions and elected assemblies dissolved
  • Constitution was ignored

Admiral Massera

1 what happened to the economy and unemployment during this time
1. What happened to the economy and unemployment during this time?

Similar to Brazil - standard of living declined, unemployment increased and government support dried up.

1 how many people disappeared during the dirty war
1. How many people disappeared during The Dirty War?

~ 30,000 (los desaparecidos – “the disappeared”)

2 how many camps were built by the government for torture and executions
2. How many camps were built by the government for torture and executions?

Over 340 Camps and Torture Centers

slide42
3. Which guerilla group was responsible for a significant number of bombings against the military government?

People’s Liberation Army

slide43

4. Which group brought international awareness to "the disappeared" in order for the government to release information about these victims and instigate charges against the perpetrators?

  • Mothers of the Disappeared
1 what are some of the factors which led to the end of the argentinean dictatorship
1. What are some of the factors which led to the end of the Argentinean dictatorship?
  • GNP fell by 11%
  • National debt increased
  • Unemployment and poverty flourished
  • Lost the Falkland War
slide47

While the coups helped stop Communism in their countries, it did not solve many issues. Provide 5 of these issues that remained unchanged or worsened.

  • Gap grew between rich and poor
  • Women, minorities and common worker rights stagnated
  • Suspended democracy
  • Promoted violence and incarceration
  • Provided haven for other dictators and war criminals